At a time when there is a spiritual revival of the nation and its moral degeneration, the urgent is the problem of education in modern man a new outlook. The burning task of our time is the development of morality and spirituality of the Ukrainians, and, above all, children and youth. It is discussed in a number of special decrees and regulations of Ukraine. T. G. Shevchenko raised the same issues in his work 150 years ago. Now they need urgent solution in Ukrainian education in general, in the sense of local history study of pedagogy in particular. It is proved that all adult life of N. Onatsky, its multi-faceted public education and teaching activities were associated with the image of the great poet of Ukraine, revolutionary democrat T. Shevchenko. In early adolescence, deep respect and boundless love for T. Shevchenko, N. H. Onatsky carried through his life. The article discusses the uniqueness of teaching and educational activities of Nicanor Onatsky based on the work of the Society «Enlightenment», an organizer and inspirer of which he was in Slobozhanschyna. The author emphasizes the exceptional importance of the theme of Taras Shevchenko in the life of N. Onatsky based on an analysis of the archival materials and printed sources, as well as historical and logical, and personalistic and biographical research methods to elucidate the role of T. Shevchenko in shaping the world, thanks to the achievements that created and maintained their attitudes and beliefs, their stance, pedagogical ideas and artistic outlook. The cultural and educational activity of N. Onatsky shows a great concern for his people, the willingness of serving people, finding love and harmony.The main occupation of his life was always a teaching job, but also social and educational activity has never shied away from. He develops murals for the Palace of proletarian culture in Sumy. In those paintings N. Onatsky introduces allegorical motifs and Ukrainian motifs ornament. He creates an emblem of the newspaper «Ray», which was included in Sumy, he offers the pictures of embroidery towels, carpet motifs ornaments, admires a book design, especially prepared cover sheet to the «Testament». Promising directions for further scientific research studies we consider N. Onatsky’s contribution to the development of the theory of national pedagogy, educational activities, research education and educational potential of the artistic heritage of the artist in the sense of local history pedagogy.