Non scholae sed vitae… Kształcenie, religia i społeczeństwo w teoriach pedagogicznych J. F. Herbarta i F. D. E. Schleiermachera
Non scholae sed vitae… Bildung, Religion and Society in Herbart & Schleiermacher’s Pedagogical Theory
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The papers is based on the pedagogical theories of J. F. Herbart and F.D.E. Schleiermacher. Despite the fact that they both lived a long time ago – at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries – their observations are still valid. In addition, they were both protagonists of general pedagogy as an independent scientific field. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first, the term Bildung will be explained with the help of the metaphor of a ship. Bildung is an individual process as well as a social process of becoming an individual, in which a combination of teaching and learning plays the key role. In the second part, Herbart’s views on the ‘place’ of religion in Bildung, as well as in school education, will be presented. The third part of the article will revolve around Schleiermacher’s theory of Bildung. According to this theory, we can distinguish four major communities within the social environment in which an individual human being is formed: the country (German: Staat), science (German: Wissenschaft), the church (German: Kirche), and independent social organizations (German: freie Gesellichkeit). Becoming aware of the similarities and differences between them induces a re-evaluation of the current attitude toward religion that is unjustly eliminated from the widely understood social discourse.
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