2016 | 1 | 74-77
Article title

Primary health care in Estonia

Title variants
Languages of publication
  • Statistical Office of Estonia 2015 [cited 29.05.2015]. Available from URL:
  • Kaiv J. Seadused ja määrused tervishoiu ja arstlikul alal ühes ringkirjadega ja sisujuhtidega (Laws and regulation in the field of health care and medicine with circulars and contents). Kohtu- ja Siseministeerium, Tallinn 1931.
  • Koppel A, Kahur K, Habicht T, et al. Estonia: Health system review. Health Syst Trans 2008; 10(1): 1–230.
  • Lember M, Kosunen E, Boerma W. Task profiles of district doctors in Estonia and general practitioners in Finland. Scand J Prim Health Care 1998; 16(1): 56–62.
  • Lember M. A policy of introducing a new contract and funding system of general practice in Estonia. Int J Health Plann Mgmt 2002; 17: 41–53.
  • Polluste K. Health reforms in Estonia. Acceptability. Satisfaction and impact. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing;2010.
  • Polluste K, Kasiulevičius V, Veide S, et al. Primary care in Baltic countries: a comparison of progress and present systems.Health Policy 2013; 109(2): 122–130.
  • Lember M. Family practice training in Estonia. Fam Med 1996; 28(4): 282–286.
  • Maaroos HI. Family medicine as a model of transition from academic medicine to academic health care: Estonia’s experience.Croat Med J 2004; 45(5): 563–566
  • Maaroos HI, Lember M. Specialist training of family physicians in non-UEMO countries: an Estonian experience. Eur J Gen Pract 2007; 13(4): 246–247.
  • Lai T, Habicht T, Kahur K, et al. Estonia: health system review. Health Syst Trans 2013; 15(6): 1–196.
  • Estonian Health Insurance Fund Yearbook 2014 [cited 29.05. 2015]. Available from URL:
  • Estonian Health Insurance Fund [cited 29.05. 2015]. Available from URL:
  • Kalda R, Lember M. Setting national standards for practice equipment. Presence of practice equipment in Estonian practices before and after introduction of guidelines with feedback. Int J Qual Health Care 2000; 12(1): 59–63.
  • Maaroos HI, Meiesaar K. Does equal availability of geographical and human resources guarantee access to family doctors in Estonia? Croat Med J 2004; 45(5): 567–572.
  • Health Statistics and Health Research Database. National Institute for Health Development [cited 29.05. 2015]. Available from URL:
  • A Review of Estonia’s Quality Assurance System for Health Care. The World Bank Group. January 2015.
  • Merilind E, Salupere R, Västra K, et al. The influence of performance-based payment on childhood immunisation coverage.Health Policy 2015; 119(6): 770–777.
  • Kalda R, Västra K. The effect of continuous monitoring of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus on the number of visits to medical specialists and hospitalization: a retrospective study. Medicina (Kaunas) 2013; 49(11): 490–496.
  • Merilind E, Västra K, Salupere R, et al. The impact of pay-for-performance on the workload of family practices in Estonia. Qual Prim Care 2014; 22(2): 109–114.
  • Polluste K, Kalda R, Lember M. Primary health care system in transition: patients’ experience. Int J Qual Health Care 2000;12(6): 503–509.
  • Kalda R, Polluste K, Lember M. Patient satisfaction with care is associated with personal choice of physician. Health Policy 2003; 64(1): 55–62.
  • Polluste K, Kalda R, Lember M. Evaluation of primary health care reform in Estonia from patients’ perspective: acceptability and satisfaction. Croat Med J 2004; 45(5): 582–587.
  • Kalda R, Polluste K, Maaroos HI, et al. Patients’ opinions on family doctor accessibility in Estonia. Croat Med J 2004; 45(5):578–581.
  • Polluste K, Kalda R, Lember M. Satisfaction with the access to the health services of the people with chronic conditions in Estonia. Health Policy 2007; 82(1): 51–61.
  • Polluste K, Kalda R, Lember M. Accessibility and use of health services among older Estonian population. Cent Eur J Public Health 2009; 17(2): 64–70.
  • Polluste K, Kallikorm R, Meiesaar K, et al. Use of general practice and rheumatology outpatient services in rheumatoid arthritis.Fam Pract 2012; 29(4): 433–440.
  • Lai T, Dorner T, Stæhr Johansen A, et al. Better noncommunicable disease outcomes: challenges and opportunities for health systems. Country Assessment. Estonia. Version March 20, 2015. WHO, Copenhagen 2015.
  • The World Bank Group. The State of Health Care Integration in Estonia. Summary Report. January 2015.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.