How good gets better and bad gets worse: measuring the face of emotion
Languages of publication
Given the history of the past, black South African students from different settings face unique academic and emotional climate. Using the Differential Emotions Scale (DES) which focuses on ten discrete emotions, and building upon Boyle’s (1984) seminal work, this study reports a repeated-measure multiple discriminant function analysis for individual items across raters. The findings further indicate that majority of the DES items are sensitive indicators of the different innate and universal facial expressions. However, the construct requires revision so that it offers the examiner maximum flexibility in assessment at diverse levels, in terms of more extensive norming and programmatic replication. In brief, the DES potentially has much to offer provided that it is adequately developed for use in non-Western nations or contexts.
- ECOWAS, Abuja, Nigeria
- SOCA- NPA, Eastern Cape, South Africa
- Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
- Dublin Business University, Dublin, Ireland
- Maimo University, Sweden
- IRC, University PO Box 2327, Pretoria, South Africa, email@example.com
- Akande, A., & Ross, M. W. (1994). Fears of AIDS among Nigerian students.Social Science & Medicine, 38, 339-342.
- Akande A., & Akande, B. E. (1994). On becoming a person: Activities to help children with their anger.Early Child Development and Care, 102, 31-62.
- Akande, A. (1997). Treating anger: the misunderstood emotion in children.Early Child Development and Care, 132, 75-91.
- Akande, A. (2002). The psychometric performance of Differential Emotions Scale. An Unpublished paper, Tshwane.
- Akande, A. & Tserere, M.M. (2006). Patterns of emotional responses to affective situations. An Unpublished paper, VDBP.
- Akande, A., Adetoun, B., & Tserere, M. (2006) "South Africa". In Georgas, J., Berry, J.W., vd Vijver, FJR., Kagitçibasi, C, and Poortinga, Y H. (ed.),Family Across Cultures - A 30-Nation Psychological Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
- Allen, B.P. & Potkay, C.R. (1981). On the arbitrary distinction between states and traits.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 916-928.
- Allen, B.P., & Potkay, C.R. (1983). Just as arbitrary as ever, comments on Zuckerman's rejoinder.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 1087-1089.
- Amick, D.J. & Walber, H.J. (1975).Introductory: Multivariate Analysis for Educational Psychological and Social Research. McCutchan, Berkeley, Calif.
- Bar-Tal, D., & Teichman, Y. (2005).Stereotypes and prejudice in conflict: Representations of Arabs in Israeli Jewish society. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Bonanno, G., & Papa, A. (2003). The social and functional aspects of emotional expression during bereavement. In P. Philippot, R. S. Feldman, & E. J. Coats (Eds.),Nonverbal Behavior in Clinical Settings (pp.145-170). New York: Oxford University Press.
- Batey, M., & Furnham, A. (2008). Creativity, intelligence, and Personality: A critical review of the scattered literature.Genetic, Social and General Psychological Monograph, 132, 305-429.
- Boyle, G.J. (1979). Delimination of state-trait curiosity in relation to state-anxiety and learning task performance.Australian Journal of Education, 23, 70-83.
- Boyle, G.J. (1984). Reliability and validity of Izard's Differential Emotions Scale,Personality, 56, 747-750.
- Brejard, V., Bonnet, A., & Pedinielli, J.H. (2009). Depressive symptoms and emotion in adolescence. A developmental functionalist view.European Psychiatry, 24, 620-621.
- Butchart, A. (1996). Violence prevention in Gauteng: the public health approach.ACTA Criminologica, 9, 5-13.
- Campbell, D.T. & Stanley, J.C. (1966).Experimental and Quasiexperimental Designs for Research. Rand McNally. Chicago, Ill.
- Cattell, R.B. (1978).The Scientific Use of Factor Analysis in Behavioural and life Sciences. Plenum Press: New York.
- Cattell, R.B. (1982). The psychometry of objective motivation measurement, a response to the Critique of Cooper and Kline.British Journal of Educational Psychology, 52, 234-241.
- Chaplin, T. M., Casey, J., Sinha, R. & Mayes, L. C. (2010), Gender differences in caregiver emotion socialization of low-income toddlers.New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 128, 11-17.
- de Jong, P.J., Koster, E.H.W., van Wees, R., & Martens, S. (2010). Angry facial expressions hamper subsequent target identification.Emotion 12, 727-732.
- de Rivera, J., & Paez, D. (2007). Emotional climate, human security and cultures of peace.Journal of Social Issues, 63, 233-254.
- Darwin, C. (1872).The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals. Note: This book was originally published in 1872, but has been reprinted many times thereafter by different publishers.
- Dirsuwit, T. (2003). Johannesburg: Fearful City? Unpublished paper.
- Dovidio, J. F., Glick, P., & Rudman, L. (2005).On The Nature of Prejudice: Fifty Years After Allport. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
- Durkheim, E. (1912). Les formes elementaires de la vie religieuse [The Elementary Forms of Religious Life]. Paris: Alcan.
- Emde, R.N. (1980). Levels of meaning for infant emotions. InThe Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology. Vol 11, Development of Cognition, Affect and Social Relations(Edited by Collins, W.A.) Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.
- Ekman., P. (1992).Telling Lies: Clues to Deceit in the Marketplace, Marriage, and Politics. New York: WW Norton
- Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Ellsworth, P. (1982). What emotion categories or dimensions can observers judge from facial behavior? In P. Ekman (ed.),Emotion in the human face(pp. 39-55). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Eysenck, H.J. & Eysenck, S.B.G. (1976).Personality Structure and Measurement. Routledge & Kagan Paul. London Press.
- Flanagan, J. (1982). Measurement of quality of life.Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 63, 56-59.
- Fox, H.C., Hong, K.A., Siedlaiz, K.M. & Sinha, R. (2008). Enhanced sensitivity to stress and drug/alcohol craving in abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals compared to social drinkers.Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 796-806.
- Fuenzalida, C., Emde, R.N., Pannabecker, B.J., & Stenberg, C. (1981). Validation of the Differential Emotions Scale in 613 mothers.Motivation and Emotion, 5, 17-43.
- Gara, M. A., Vega, W. A., Lesser, I., Escamilla, M., Lawson, W.B., Wilson, D.R., Fleck, D.E., & Strakowski, S.M. (2010). The Role of Complex Emotions in Inconsistent Diagnoses of Schizophrenia.Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. 198- Issue 9 - pp 609-613
- Holland, A.C.; Tamir, M., & Kensinger, E.A. (2010). The effect of regulation goals on emotional event-specific knowledge.Memory, 18, 504-521.
- Hyman S, Fox HC, Hong K, Doebrick C., & Sinha, R. (2007). Stress and drug cue-induced craving in opioid dependent individuals in naltrexone treatment.Experimental Clinical Psychopharmacology 15, 134-143.
- Izard, C.E. (1977).Human Emotions. Plenum York.
- Izard, C.E. (1980). The emergence of emotions and the development of consciousness in infancy.In the Psychobiology of Consciousness(Edited by Davidson, J.M. and Davidson, R.J.). Plenum Press, New York.
- Izard, C.E. (1994). Innate and universal facial expressions: Evidence from developmental cross-cultural research.Psychological Bulletin, 115, 288-299.
- Izard, C.E., & Dougherty, F.E., Blosom, B.M. & Kotsch, N.E. (1974).The Differential Emotions State. A Method for Measuring the Subjective Experience of Discrete Emotions. Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville, Tene.
- James, W. (1884). "What is Emotion?".Mind 10:188-205.
- Jin, Y., Park, S.A., & Len-Rios, M.E. (2010). Strategic communication of hope and agner: A case of Duke University's conflict management with multiple publics.Public Relations Review, 36, 63-65.
- Johnson, K.J., Waugh, C.E. & Fredrickson, L. (2010). Smile to see the forest. Facially expressed positive emotions broaden cognition.Cognitive & Emotion, 25, 299-321.
- Kanyangara, P., Rime, B., Philippot, P. & Yzerbyt, V. (2007). Collective rituals, emotional climate, intergroup perceptions: Participation in "Gacaca" tribunals and assimilation of the Rwandan Genocide.Journal of Social Issues, 63, 387-403.
- Kline, P. (1979).Psychometrics and Psychology. Academic Press, London.
- Knyazev, G. G., Slobodskoj-Plusnin, J.Y. & Bocharov, A.V. (2010). Gender differences in implicit and explicit processing of emotional facial expressions as revealed by event related theta synchronization,Emotion, 10, 678-687.
- Larsen, R., & Fredrickson, B. (1999). Measurement issues in emotion research. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener & N. Schwarz (Eds.),Well-being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology(pp. 40-60). New York, NY: Russel Sage Foundation.
- Louw, A., Shaw, M., Camerer, L. & Robertshaw, R. (1998). Victims of Crime in Johannesburg. Monograph No 18, Institute of Security Studies, Pretoria.
- Low, J.M. (1999). Differences in cognitive complexity of adolescents with foreclosed and achieved identity status.Psychological Reports, 87, 1093-1099.
- Low, J. M., Akande, A., & Hill, C. J. M., (2005). "A cross-cultural comparison of identity development: South Africa and the United States,"Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 5, 303-314.
- Lynn, R. (1981).Dimension Papers in honor of H. J. Eysenck. Pergarmon Press, London.
- Machleit, K.A., & Mantel, S.P. (2007. Emotional response and shopping satisfaction moderating effects of shopper attribution.Journal of Business Research, 23, 77-100.
- McLellan, T., Johnston, L., Dalrymple-Alfotd, J., & Porter, R. (2010). Sensitivity to genuine versus posed emotion specified in facial displays.Cognitive & Emotion, 25, 1277-1292.
- Mikolajczak, M., Nelis, D Hansenne, M., & Quoidback, J, (2008). If you can regulate sadness, you can probably regulate shame: Associations between trait emotional intelligence, emotion regulation and coping efficiency across discrete emotions.Personality and Individual Difference, 44, 1356-1368.
- Mosher, D.L., & White, B.B. (1981). On differentiating shame and shying.Motivation and Emotion, 5. 61-64.
- Myers, DG. (2004) "Theories of Emotion."Psychology: Seventh Edition, New York, NY: Worth Publishers, p. 500.
- Nunnally, J. C. (1978).Psychometric Theory. McGraw-Hill, New York.
- Ollendick, T. H., Yang, B., King, N. J., Dong, Q., & Akande, A. (1996). Fears in American, Australian, Chinese, and Nigerian children and adolescents: a cross-cultural study.Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 213-220
- Páez, D., Marques, J., Valencia, J., & Vincze, O. (2006). Dealing with collective shame and guilt.Psicologia Politica, 32, 59-78.
- Páez, D., Basabe, N., Ubillos, S. & González-Castro, J. L. (2007), Social Sharing, Participation in Demonstrations, Emotional Climate, and Coping with Collective Violence After the March 11th Madrid Bombings.Journal of Social Issues, 63:323-337. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2007.00511.x
- Parrott, W. (2001),Emotions in Social Psychology, Psychology Press, Philadelphia.
- Pinkham, A.E., Griffin, M., Baron, R., Sasson, N, J., & Gur, R.C. (2010). The face in the crowd effect: anger superiority when using real faces and multiple identities.Emotion, 10, 141-146.
- Plutchik, R. (1980).Emotion: A Psychoevolutionary Synthesis. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
- Reid, R.C. (2010). Differentiating emotions in a sample of men in treatment of hypersexual behaviour.Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 10, 197-203.
- Ruys, K. I., & Stapel, D. A. (2008). Emotion elicitor or emotion messenger?Psychological Science, 19, 593-600.
- Saggino, A., Cooper, C., & Kline, P. (2001). A confirmatory factor analysis of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator,Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 3-9.
- Schneider, D. J. (2004).The Psychology of Stereotyping. New York: Guilford Press.
- Schwartz, G.E., & Weinberger, D.A. (1980). Patterns of emotional responses to affective situations relations among happiness, sadness, anger, fear, depression and anxiety.Motivation and Emotion, 4, 175-191.
- Seva, R.R., Dur, H.B.L., & Helander, M. G. (2010). Structural analysis of affect in the pre-purchase context.DLSU Business & Economics Review, 19, 43-52.
- Simpson, J., Hillman, R., Crawford, T., & Overton, P.G. (2010). Selfesteem and self-disgust both mediate the relationship between dysfunctional cognitions and depressive symptoms.Motivation and Emotion, 34, 399-406
- Sirota, A.D., & Schwartz, G. E. (1982). Facial muscle patterning and lateralization during elation and depression imagery.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 25-34.
- Spinks, C. (2001). A new apartheid? Urban spatiality (fear of) crime and segregation in Cape Town, South Africa. Unpublished Working paper 01-20. Development Studies Unit, LSE.
- Smith, C. A., & Scott, H. S. (1997). A componential approach to the meaning of facial expression. In J.A. Russell & J.M. Fernandez-Dols (Eds.),The Psychology of Facial Expression (pp. 229-254). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
- Tomasik, M.J., Silberreisen, R.K., & Heckhausen, J. (2010) Is it adaptive to disengage from demands of social change? Adjustment to developmental barriers in opportunity-deprived regions.Motivation and Emotions, 34, 384-398.
- Triandis, H. and Gelfand, M. (1998), Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 118-128.
- Watkins, D., & Akande, A. (1992). Approaches to learning of Nigerian secondary school children: Emic and etic perspectives.International Journal of Psychology, 29, 165-182.
- Watkins, D., McInerney, D., Akande, A., & Lee, C. (2003). "An investigation of ethnic differences in the motivation and strategies for learning of students in desegregated South African schools,"Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 189-194.
- Weiss F. (2005). Neurobiology of craving, conditioned reward and relapse.Current Opinion Pharmacology. 5, 9-19.
- Vedder, J (2002). Embodied Rhetorics: Disability in Language and Culture: Unpublished paper, University of Pennsylvania.
- Yang, L., Kleinman, A., Link, B., Phelan, J., Lee, S., & Good, B. (2007). Culture and stigma: adding moral experience to stigma theory.Social Science & Medicine, 64, 1524-1535.
- Yzerbyt, V. Y., Judd, C. M., & Corneille, O. (2004).The Psychology of Group Perception: Perceived Variability, Entitativity, and Essentialism. London: Psychology Press.
- Zuckerman, M., (1983). The distinction between trait and state scales is not arbitrary: comment on Allen and Potkay's Ön the arbitrary distinction between traits and states".Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 1083-1086.
- Zukerman, M., Klorman, R., Larrance, D.T., & Spiegel, N. H. (1981). Facial, autonomic and subjective components of emotion the facial feedback hypothesis versus the externalizer-internalizer distinction.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 929-944.
Publication order reference