Surowce krzemienne w życiu wspólnot łużyckich pól popielnicowych na przykładzie osady w Rudzie, pow. Grudziądz, woj. kujawsko-pomorskie, stanowisko 3–6
Flint’s Role in the Life of Lusatian Urnfield Culture’s Society Base on Discoveries from Settlement in Ruda, Grudziądz Commune, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (site 3–6)
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Site 3–6 in Ruda, Grudziądz commune, is situated in southern part of the Grudziądz Basin (fig. 1), just at the foot of the brink of Vistula Valley, on the flat, vast headland, sloping towards the river. The motorway Investigations Team at the Institute of Archaeology Nicolas Copernic University, during their research in years 2000–2002, found some evidence of settlement from the Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman Period and Middle Age. The settlement of the Lusatian Urnfield Culture (exist here at late Bronze Age to early periods of Iron Age) discovered in the northern and central part of this site, included remains of 50 homesteads composed of dwellings of different purpose as well as pits of various functions. Archaeological material from the site is represented by abundant set of ceramic dishes fragments (fig. 2), dishes and ornaments of bronze, metallurgical clay casting moulds (fig. 3), amber as well as tools of stone and flint (fig. 4-11). In 56 features dated to late Bronze Age and early Iron Age 129 flint products and 36 flint natural materials (fig. 4-11) were found. These contains scaled pieces and splintered chips mainly, 30 per cent were flakes and production waste. Flint tools and blades were rare. Decisive majority of the flint artefacts acquired on site were made of erratic, Baltic flint; they were present in all morphologic groups. Less numerous were Pomerania flint artefacts. Only 3 specimens were made of chocolate flint. Subsequent 91 flint products and 36 natural flint materials were found in cultural layer (fig. 12-14). This group contains flakes and production waste mainly. Pieces and splintered chips were significantly less. Discovered flint knifes so called projectile points (fig. 14d–e) proved the local flint production. Flint items found in cultural layer can be dated to the Neolithic as well as to the Bronze Age and early periods of Iron Age. But specimens discovered in features connected with Lusatian Urnfield Culture settlement (especially products with traces of flaking), confirmed making use of older flint items (fig. 7g, 8e, 11h, 11k) in local society of late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. In a place or in situation when people were had not an access to usually used tools (for instantiation in the fields or in the forest) they could found old flint tools, used these to mashing up, cutting and stinging and brought to the household.
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