NAZWY OBIEKTÓW TRANSGRANICZNYCH POŁOŻONYCH NA GRANICY POLSKO-CZESKIEJ
THE NAMES OF TRANSBOUNDARY GEOGRAPHICAL OBJECTS LYING ON THE POLISH-CZECH BOUNDARY
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The aim of this paper is the analysis of the names used in Poland and the Czech Republic for transboundary geographical objects lying on the common boundary. Each country, that has land boundaries, is also equipped with some geographic objects situated beyond its boundaries, i.e. objects beyond a single sovereignty (transboundary objects and objects lying on the boundary). Many of such objects have names — toponyms. It is not rare that different names are used for such objects on both sides of the boundary. Poland has land boundaries with seven countries. The longest stretch (796 km) constitutes the boundary with the Czech Republic. After the analysis of the Czech and Polish topographic maps that are available on the national geoportals, maps of the divisions into natural regions (Polish: “Regiony fizycznogeograficzne” [Physiographical Regions] 1 : 1 500 000 by J. Kondracki, A. Richling placed in “Atlas Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej” [Atlas of the Republic of Poland] and published by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography, and Czech “Vyšší geomorfologické jednotky České republiky” 1 : 500 00 [Major Geomorphological Units of the Czech Republic] published by the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre), and toponymic databases (Polish the National Register of Geographical Names, and Czech Geonames — the Database of geographic names of the Czech Republic), it was established that 360 named geographic objects lie on this boundary. This number includes: 123 hydronyms (names of rivers and other streams), 224 oronyms (139 names of summits, 22 names of mountain passes, 35 names of mountain ranges and ridges, 15 names of highlands, plateaus and uplands, 7 names of mountain basins, valleys and depressions, 3 names of lowlands, and 3 names of rocks), 9 names of forests, 1 name of a mountain meadow (alp), and 3 names of tracks. 212 of these objects (59%) have names in both languages – Polish and Czech, however, in 99 cases (47% of objects that have name in both Polish and Czech languages) the Polish and Czech toponyms entirely do not correspond to each other. Of the remaining objects, 67 (18%) only have a Czech name, and 81 (23%) only have a Polish name. In some natural regions, the limits of their ranges set by the Czech and Polish geographers vary widely, for example a single region on one side of the boundary corresponds to two or more regions on the other side of the boundary. In other cases, illustrations of incorrectness are more sophisticated, like the river that has a different course according to the Czech or Polish maps (a stream regarded as a main watercourse in one country, which has its own name, but in another country is considered as a tributary with a different name). In summary, it should be stated that a large part of the Polish and Czech names of the geographical objects lying on the common boundary were drawn regardless of the names used in the neighboring country.
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