Potenciál vybraných typologií a modelů organizační kultury pro výzkum a praxi
The potential of the selected typologies and models of organizational culture for the research and practice
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The article introduces the chosen typologies and models of organizational culture which are used worldwide. The aim is to demonstrate common and different characteristics and way of operationalizing of organizational culture for the measurement of research and practice into selected examples of typologies and models of organizational culture. At first general concepts will be summarized and described such as organizational culture, typology and model. Then the survey will be focused on the description of individual typologies and models, which will be compared to each other on the basis of seven defined categories. The categories are following the theoretical base, the speed of the organizational culture measuring, the theory approach, the culture variations, the culture development, the aim and the financial demands. In the article are described advantages and disadvantages of typologies and models, their practical use and topic to which they are responding. The article tries to depict the differences between cultural theories with the use of individual items of organizational culture, which are divided into two areas. First is made of items which are easily observable such as customs, rituals, norms of behavior, the stories of the organization, company heroes or elements of the organizational architecture and equipment. Items of first area express in different extend items of the other part. The other part contains basic convictions, values or attitudes. This items are less observable, because their actual contains is much more sensitive to the question of experience and feeling than knowledge. The first part which contains easily observable items is often better detected with the use of typologies. In general the typologies are more suitable in case when the leadership of organization knows the area which could be a potential risk for the organization. The models are more suitable tools for the measurement of the second area, which contains items which are less observable. This article contains following methods of the typology: The typology of T. B. Deal and A. A. Kennedy, The typology of R. Harrison and Ch. Handy and The typology two-by-two matrix by R. Goffee and G. Jones. In the survey following models are mentioned: The Hofstede´s Multifocus Model, The Seven Levels of Consciousness Model of R. Barrett and The Denison organizational culture model. The methods of the organizational culture measuring are described according to the individual types and dimensions, which are parts of a given method within the description of the methods for measuring are defined advantages and disadvantages of the use of given techniques. The selection of the suitable method is influenced by the organization itself. The organization has decided for the organizational culture measuring. The reasons of this decision are the specific problems and the development of every organization.
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