Aristotle and Principlism in Bioethics
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Principlism, a most prominent approach in bioethics, has been criticized for lacking an underlying moral theory. We propose that the four principles of principlism can be related to the four traditional cardinal virtues. These virtues appear prominently in Plato's Republic and in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. We show how this connection can be made. In this way principlism has its own compelling ethical basis.
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- Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 7th edn., Oxford University Press, New York 2012.
- Jeffrey W. Bulger, “An Approach towards Applying Principlism,” Ethics and Medicine (25) 2009, p. 121–125.
- A.V. Campbell, “The Virtues (and Vices) of the Four Principles,” Journal of Medical Ethics (29) 2003, p. 292–296.
- Joseph Cimakasky and Ronald Polansky, “Descartes’ ‘Provisional Morality’,” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly (93) 2012, p. 353–372.
- K. Danner Clouser, “Common Morality as an Alternative to Principlism,” Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal (5) 1995, p. 219–236.
- K. Danner Clouser and Bernard Gert, “A Critique of Principlism,” Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (15) 1990, p. 219–236.
- Galen, “The Best Doctor is Also a Philosopher,” [in:] P.N. Singer, Galen: Selected Works, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1997, p. 30–34.
- P. Gardiner, “A Virtue Ethics Approach to Moral Dilemmas in Medicine,” Journal of Medical Ethics (29) 2003, p. 297–302.
- Albert R. Jonsen, A Short History of Medical Ethics, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2008.
- Richard Kraut, “Doing Without Morality: Reflections on the Meaning of Dein in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy (30) 2006, pp. 159-200.
- Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue. 3rd edn., University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame 2007.
- Katie Page, “The Four Principles: Can They be Measured and Do They Predict Ethical Decision Making?” Medical Ethics (13) 2012, p. 1–8.
- Gregory E. Pence, Medical Ethics: Accounts of Ground-Breaking Cases, McGraw-Hill, New York 2011.
- Ronald Polansky, “Introduction: Ethics as Practical Science,” [in:] The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle’s “Nicomachean Ethics,” R. Polansky (ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2014, p. 1–13.
- J.B. Schneewind, The Invention of Autonomy: A History of Modern Moral Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1998.
- P.N. Singer, Galen: Selected Works, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1997.
- Daniel Fu-Chang Tsai, “Ancient Chinese Medical Ethics and the Four Principles of Biomedical Ethics,” Journal of Medical Ethics (25) 1999, p. 315–321.
- Bernard Williams, Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1985.
- Bernard Williams, Shame and Necessity, University of California Press, Berkeley 1993.
Special Topic – Aristotelian Recources of Bioethics
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