2013 | 61 | 145-188
Article title

Przemysł ze skał niekrzemiennych w mezolicie ziem polskich? Z wyników badań stanowiska Ludowice 6, gm. Wąbrzeźno

Title variants
Industry of non-flint rocks in Mesolithic Polish Lands? From the results of the study of Ludowice 6 site, Wąbrzeźno comm.
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Stone products constitute one of the basic types of sources identified on Stone Age sites. In case of the earlier and middle phase of this period it is often the only source. The area of Polish Lands is rich in flints, what made them the basic raw material used for tool production in this region during primeval times. Other rock species had less importance in this regard. However, as is commonly believed, they were used for making macrolithic forms of different types. The introduction of such classification, particularly its uncritical acceptance, despite the fact that it is often reflected at the archeological sites, may however generate mistakes. It is not a secret that in areas of difficult access to flint, technically inferior types of fine crystalline rocks, e.g. quartz, quartzite, fine crystalline sandstones etc., were often utilized in production of tools of everyday use as equivalents. One cannot exclude that this happened also on the territory of Poland. Recently, a very interesting collection of stone artifacts from non-flint rocks has been discovered during the study of multicultural site Ludowice 6, in the Wąbrzeźno commune. Ludowice 6 site, Wąbrzeźno comm. The Ludowice 6 site is located in the central part of the Chełmno Lake District, on the Chełmińska Height, in the contact zone of sandur and a large kettle hole, filled with biogenic sediments (peat) (Fig. 1). Archeological research of the site began in 2009 on behalf of the Institute of Archeology, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, and so far they have covered the area of 628,5m2 (Fig. 2). The group of collected mobile sources includes (as for 2012): 11349 flint artifacts, 674 artifacts from other stone materials, 227 bones and (in the peat part) a few wooden sources. The main settlement phase of this area of the site took place in the Mesolithic, when it used to be frequently visited mostly by the representatives of Komornica culture (Duvensee tradition) in Atlantic period). Primaeval materials discovered on the site occurred in three aggregations. On the basis of observations made in the course of archeological research as well as opinions of a soil scientist and a geomorphologist it was concluded that Mesolithic materials occurring in the sandur part of the site, in the top of rusty soil, are located in the primary deposit (in situ) and were not subject to significant displacements. Results of material, morphological and technological analysis of materials from non-flint rocks During previous research at the Ludowice 6 site discovered have been 579 stone artifacts made of non-flint rocks, qualified for further analyze as specimens potentially subjected to treatment. Petrographic study of this collection, conducted by dr Halina Pomianowska from the Department of Geology and Hydrogeology of the Institute of Geography, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, showed that the majority of them was made from red quartz porphyry, ferruginous quartz sandstone or fine-grained red granite (Tab. 1). The collection contained also, in much smaller amounts, items from other species of granite and sandstone, quartzites, gneisses, mudstones, slates and single minerals of quartzes and feldspars. The material was subjected to multifaceted analysis, the main aim of which was the verification the hypothesis on its anthropogenity. Red quartz porphyry It is the most frequently represented type of raw material in the analyzed collection. Discovered were 297 artifacts made of this material (Tab. 1). The group of specimens identified as cores amounts to 13 pieces and includes: one striking platform blade core with a prepared striking platform (Tabl. 1: 1, Fig. 3: 1), two artifacts of core that has changed orientation or are two striking platform cores (Tabl. 1: 2, 3; Fig. 3: 4), three specimens which can be considered as splintered cores (Tabl. 1: 4-6; Fig. 3: 3), three specimens with attributes of multi platform flake cores (Tabl. 1: 7; Fig. 3: 2) and four forms with single negatives. The group of blades contained 15 artifacts (Tabl. 1: 8-12; Fig. 3: 5, 6). Besides the material the group included also a specimen with features of a partly-crested blade (Tabl. 1: 13). 247 flakes and pieces of porphyry waste (Tabl. 1: 14-18; Fig. 3: 7-9) as well as 13 technical specimens were collected at the site (Tabl. 1: 19-24; Fig. 3: 12). The collection of probable morphological tools amounts to 22 specimens. One can distinguish: four end-scrapers (Tabl. 2: 1-3, 5; Fig. 3: 10, 16, 18), a retouched blade (Tabl. 2: 4; Fig. 3: 15), a fragment of microlith, certainly a triangle (Tabl. 2: 6; Fig. 3: 14), two side scrapers (Tabl. 2: 7, 8; Fig. 3: 17), four retouched flakes (Tabl. 2: 9-12; Fig. 3: 13), a retouched core form (Tabl. 2: 13), five burins (Tabl. 2: 14-16; Fig. 3: 11) and four forms the features of which do not allow for their more certain typologization. Red granite 115 artifacts made of this material were distinguished (Tab. 1), among which found were three core forms: one striking platform flake core (Tabl. 3: 1), both sides, bipolar splintered core (Tabl. 3: 2; Fig. 4: 1) and multi striking platform flake core in early stages of debitage. 12 artifacts of blade parameters occurred (Tabl. 3: 3-6; Fig. 4: 2, 3), besides which four blade technical forms deserve attention (Tabl. 3: 7-10; Fig. 4: 4, 5). The group of flakes and waste contained 97 specimens (Tabl. 3: 11-15; Fig. 4: 6-8). In the collection three forms with features of morphological tools were distinguished, all of them are burins (Tabl. 3: 16-18; Fig. 4: 9). Red quartzite sandstone The collection contained 99 artifacts z red quartzite sandstone (Tab. 1). Distinguished were four one striking platform cores (Tabl. 4: 1, 2; Fig. 4: 15) and one two striking platform core (Tabl. 4: 3; Fig. 4: 16). Blades are represented by 13 specimens (Tabl. 4: 4-9; Fig. 4: 14, 17-19) and two blade technical forms (Tabl. 4: 10, 11). Identified were 74 flakes and pieces of waste (Tabl. 4: 12-16; Fig. 4: 20, 22-24). The collection of artifacts considered as morphological tools amounts to seven specimens, including six probable burins (Tabl. 4: 17-20, 5: 4; Fig. 4: 21, 5: 4-6). Grey quartz sandstone 28 artifacts made of this raw material were collected (Tab. 1). The group of cores contained four one striking platform forms (Tabl. 5: 1-3; Fig. 5: 1-3) and blade specimen with the attributes of two striking platform core. The group of semi product included one blade and 22 flakes and pieces of waste. The only distinguished morphological tool is a blade with a retouched cavity (Tabl. 5: 5; Fig. 5: 6). Quartzite The collection contained 18 quartzite artifacts (Tab. 1). This group included: hypothetical core (Tabl. 3: 19; Fig. 4: 10), four blades (Tabl. 3: 20-22; Fig. 4: 13), 10 flakes and three tools: end-scraper (Tabl. 3: 25; Fig. 4: 11), a retouched bulb part of a blade (Tabl. 3: 24; Fig. 4: 12) and a burin (Tabl. 3: 23). Other materials Besides the artifacts described above, the collection included also single specimens of other rock species, such as: gneisses, mudstones, slates and single minerals of quartzes and feldspars. Artifacts or geofacts? Artifacts of quartz porphyry The group of porphyry artifacts is the largest one. The search for the origin of the collection began with testing the surface of the site and its surroundings for the presence of possible porphyry sources. Results of this investigation showed that the material was concentrated only within the site. Further analysis of the spread of porphyry artifacts was restricted to the area covered by excavations. It was found that they occurred here only in trenches, in which registered were the remnants of primaeval settlement (Fig. 6). Their spreading manner was not uniform. In the western habitat they used to accumulate in the centre of the area covered by research, in the region of registration of the largest number of other types of artifacts, constituting a clearly visible aggregation (Fig. 7). In the habitat located more towards east one can distinguish two aggregations of this type. The spreading manner of the materials indicates its anthropogenic origin and connection with primaeval source present at the site. Further arguments for this hypothesis were provided by results of artifacts’ morphological analysis. All the porphyry cores wear traces of processing, characteristics of which indicate a connection with intentional human activity. Systems of negatives observed on them carry the marks of intentionality of undertaken activities, and their forms themselves and techniques applied in their treatment have strict analogies in flint artifacts. Also the majority of identified porphyry material wears identical signs indicating the anthropogenic origin. Further arguments were provided by the analysis of a group of morphological tools. Attention is drawn here by similarity of porphyry forms to those registered among artifacts made of flint. Also the very manner of their production, including the applied retouch, is analogous and differs significantly in the majority of cases, from use or post-depositional fractures (Osipowicz in print). Similar conclusions can be drawn through analysis of the distinguished burins. Also adjustments, to which some of the artifacts were subjected, e.g. end-scrapers, find their analogies in collections of flint materials (Osipowicz 2010, 196-201). Use-wear analyze of the collection led to registration of quite uniform damage. All the analyzed artifacts had rounded edges (both in the retouched and raw parts – Fig. 8a), what indicates significant post-depositional changes of their surface. However, on their isolated fragments observed were smoothness and atypical linear polish (Fig. 8b). It is hardly visible and may raise doubts. However, the set contained two specimens the with damage of very probable usage character. On the first one a rounding was observed, very clearly visible also macroscopically (Fig. 9a), the further microscopic analysis of which showed the presence of spread linear polish of invasive range, covering the top parts of the micro structure of the material (Fig. 9b). On the second artifact (scraper) discovered were very well developed polish as well as linear traces (Fig. 10). To the use-wear analyze subjected was also the only one in the collection microlith (probable triangle). On the specimen identified was a „spin off” and a series of several micro-burin facets, completely damaging the blade of the artifact ad one of its sides (Fig. 11). Observed traces indicate that the specimen was used as a arrow- or spearhead. Results of all conducted analyses seem thus to indicate the anthropogenity of the collection of porphyry artifacts. Granite artifacts The range of occurrence of granite artifacts was related to spreading of other types of artifacts and in some places they used to occur in aggregations (Fig. 12, 13). Features of some specimens quite clearly indicate the anthropogenic origin. The group of cores contained two forms with ordered negatives, the arrangement and characteristics of which have a strict analogy in techniques used in Stone Age in flint material treatment. Both the specimen identified as blade core and splintered core wear traces of planned, multi-phased treatment, aimed at obtaining a regular semi-product. Anthropogenic features are present also in specimens considered as semi-product, particularly blades. In the majority of cases they have regular, parallel sides, convergent layout of negatives on the top side and trapezoidal cross-sections. Of major importance is here also, undoubtedly, the presence of four technical forms, having strict analogies among flint artifacts. Similar regularity is characteristic for the majority of specimens ascribed to the group of flakes. Anthropogenity of this collections seems very probable. Artifacts made of quartzite sandstone Sandstone artifacts occurred in aggregations the range of which was restricted to the distribution zone of other types of primaeval products. Basically, the aggregations of these artifacts covered the range of aggregations of artifacts made of other materials, although some discrepancies have been also registered here (Fig. 14, 15). Worth noting is a significant uniformity of these materials. The majority of them (78%) are specimens made of ferruginous quartzite sandstone; the remaining ones differ only in color from them. This type of sandstone is well fissible and despite appearances quite hard. Experiments with its treatment showed that one can obtain from it a semi-product of varying size and very sharp edges, including blades, from which various tools can be made, also microliths (Fig. 16). All the discovered cores of quartzite sandstone are characterized by ordered negatives, the arrangement of which shows tendencies to made flakes with parallel edges and parameters close to blades. What draws attention is a large resemblance of the described forms and clear ways of dealing with them to those observed in case of flint artifacts. A similar statement can be formulated in relation to the identified semi-product. The content of the group of morphological tools is most probably due to technological parameters of the quartzite sandstone. All the discovered morphological burins from the collection were made based on the techniques used in flint materials treatment. Among the flint artifacts they also have strict analogies. Their connection with human activity, similarly as in the case of the remaining quartzite sandstone artifacts, seems quite certain. Quartzite artifacts The collection of quartzite products is not very numerous, what causes problems in its precise analysis. Of anthropogenic origin are, however, most probably all the distinguished morphological tools, what is supported by their forms and the arrangement of negatives observed on them. To sum up the above remarks, it is clear that all the precisely discussed materials were certainly processed to a varying degree at the Ludowice 6 site. Analyzing their distribution in the region covered with excavations one may statistically distinguish at least five places of their concentration. Certainly, these are not remains of points of intense material treatment, but rather traces of its use or possibly its occasional processing. In the western habitat two concentrations are distinguished, one of which contains mainly porphyry and sandstone artifacts (22 specimens in total), and the other – those made of sandstone and granite (17 specimens). In the habitat located further to the East at least three concentrations are found, amounting to 35, 15 and 13 artifacts. In one of them artifacts from porphyry, sandstone and granite occurred; the latter material did not occur in the two remaining concentrations. All the concentrations from the eastern aggregation should be considered as examined only fragmentarily. Possible reasons of non-flint rocks treatment at the Ludowice 6 site The actual genesis of the collection of porphyry artifacts seems to be described by results of the conducted morphological and use-wear analysis. They show that porphyry cracking in Ludowice bears the characteristics of coring oriented at the production of semi-product and tools used for various works. However, at this stage of research it is difficult to tell what kind of. The conducted experimental studies (Fig. 17) suggest that porphyry products only in slight degree (if at all) are inferior to flint tools, concerning both the effectiveness and resistance to damage, or versatility. Use-wear analysis of the experimental tools showed that use-wear traces occurring on porphyry tools may be quite similar to those observed on flint specimens (Fig. 18, 19). However, it is premature to transfer these observations onto primaeval artifacts. It is even more difficult to talk about the reasons of granite knapping at the Ludowice site. Most likely, however, crumbs (wastes) and some of the flakes found originate from the treatment of grinders and other macrolithic tools, the remaining ones form small-scale coring. Its reason remains unclear at this stage. Probably, an analogous is the situation in case of artifacts made of quartzite sandstones. Some of the flakes are certainly a remnant of the process of sanding plate production. However, as can be inferred from the presence and forms of the excavated cores, parameters of blades and flakes, and particularly the finding of specimens subjected to secondary treatment (i.e. morphological tools), the great majority of the found sandstone artifacts was formed probably in the course of coring, oriented at the production of semi-product, and – in consequence – tools. Unfortunately, concerning the technological parameters of the rock, we are unable at the moment (similarly as in the case of granite) to determine what was the purpose of their use. Industry chronology At the Ludowice site, covered by excavation research, identified were remains of primaeval settlement from three periods: Late Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Early Bronze Age. The planigraphic distribution of the deposition of described artifacts (Fig. 20, 21) as well as their morphological features allow to suggest their connection with the Mesolithic. Summary The industry of non-flint rocks distinguished at the Ludowice 6 site constitutes only less than 5% of all stone and flint artifacts collected so far from its surface. It is, however, certainly something new and raising interest on the ground of the present knowledge about the Middle Stone Age of the Polish Lands. Such aggregations are, however, present in the European Mesolithic, especially in places poor in high quality flint raw materials. Quartz and quartzite belonged to the basic materials used in tool production in some regions of Scandinavia and Ireland (Larsson 1990, 282; Price 1991, 220; Bang-Andersen 1996, 439; Bergman i in. 2003, 1456; Olofsson 2003, 3-4; Driscoll, Warren 2007; Ballin 2008, 8-14; Bailey 2008, 81; Hertell, Tallavaara 2011, 11; Manninen, Knutsson 2011, 169-173; Manninen, Tallavaara 2011, 194). They occur also, for instance, in materials from the area of Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, and even Spain (Gob, Jacques 1985, 167; Pallarés, Mora 1995, 68; Kriiska, Lőugas 1999; Kind 2006, 217; Bailey 2008, 229). At the Mesolithic Scandinavian sites one can find also porphyry artifacts (MacCurdy 1927, 397; 1937, 496; Larsson 1990, 282; Olofsson 2003, 3-4), constituting in some cases (e.g. Garaselet site in Sweden) almost 3/4 of the collection (Olofsson 2003, 9). Like (probably) at the Ludowice site, this rock was used in this region also for production of microliths (Manninen, Knutsson 2011, 146, 169, fig. 2). Quartzite sandstones were subjected to treatment in the Mesolithic at some Finnish and Estonian sites Kriiska, Lőugas 1999; Kankaanpää, Rankama 2011, 43). They were, however, subjected to treatment also in other region of Europe, e.g. in Spain (Pallarés, Mora 1995, 68). Granitoids, in the Middle Stone Age, were used mainly in production of macrolithic tools. The residues of granite treatment were found for instance in the Netherlands, Denmark or northern part of Urals (MacCurdy 1937, 496; Holst 2010, 2873; Mosin, Nikolsky 2010, 6). Some time ago also in Poland opinions started appearing, in which postulated is the possibility of treatment of different kinds of non-flint rocks at late glacial and early Holocene sites. This suggestion was first put forward by S. W. Krukowski and A. Nowakowski (Nowakowski 1976, 68). About early Holocene artifacts of this type H. Więckowska and M. Chmielewska (2007, 30-33) have written recently. Without a doubt, one should also mention here that artifacts made of red quartzite sandstone, analogous to those excavated in Ludowice, occurred also in a relatively large number at a, located only several tens of kilometers from the described site, Mesolithic cemetery in Mszano (site 14). Identified were here as well, although less numerous, artifacts made of red porphyry quartzite. Due to the dune character of the cemetery in Mszano, the presence of the recalled specimens cannot have natural reasons. In the light of cited data, the industry of Ludowice does not constitute, on the ground of European findings, something unusual, although the observations made will certainly be strengthened through acquiring more artifacts and reconstruction, by experimental and technological-morphological studies, of the full operational chain accompanying the treatment of the described materials. Confirmation is required also in the case of conclusions drawn in the course of the conducted use-wear analyses. Archeological works at the Ludowice site are still underway, while the conducted analyses are incomplete, what makes a future verification of the drawn conclusions possible. Certainly, doubts are raised by some of the described artifacts, particularly if one tries to consider them separately. However, taking into account the data collected so far, anthropogenity of the majority of analyzed materials seems very probable. Sources obtained in the course of research at the Ludowice 6 site indicate cracking of different types of non-flint rocks and production of tools from them. Stratigraphic-planigraphic observations made as well as results of preliminary technological-morphological analyses allow to date them for Mesolithic. The matter of the genesis of this process remain open. Perhaps important for the solution of this problem will be the presence in the collection of flint artifacts of quite specific microliths (shouldered points), having close analogies in Mesolithic Scandinavian and Western European materials (Price 1987, 258; Sjöström 1997, 8, Fig. 5:1-5; Galiński 2002, p. 59). With high degree of probability it should be stated that reasons of the formation of this industry should not be looked for in local material situation but rather in cultural traditions.
Physical description
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