PL EN


2019 | 1/2019 (81) | 130-158
Article title

Ghanaian Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Germany: Motivations and Contributions for Development

Content
Title variants
PL
Imigranci z Ghany prowadzący przedsiębiorstwa w Niemczech – czynniki motywujące i wkład w rozwój
Languages of publication
EN PL
Abstracts
EN
This study investigates the contributions of Germany-based Ghanaian immigrant entrepreneurs to the socio-economic development of Germany and Ghana. This study also employs the ‘pull’ and ‘push’ theories to undertake an analysis of the motivating factors that drive these immigrants into entrepreneurship in Germany. This exploratory study adopts both quantitative and qualitative research methods to gather field-based data from 54 entrepreneurs in four different cities using a questionnaire and semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Among other roles, entrepreneurs contribute socially to the development of Germany and Ghana in activities such as charitable donations and offering training for prospective entrepreneurs. The economic contributions to both countries include activities such as paying taxes, receipt of remittances, export and import of goods. Overall, it appears that pull factors have a stronger impact on entrepreneurship than push factors do.
PL
W artykule przeanalizowano wkład imigrantów z Ghany prowadzących działalność gospodarczą w Niemczech w rozwój społeczno-gospodarczy Niemiec i Ghany. W badaniu wykorzystano teorie dotyczące czynników pozytywnych („pull”) i negatywnych („push”) w celu dokonania analizy powodów, którymi imigranci kierują się, podejmując działania przedsiębiorcze w Niemczech. W badaniu pogłębionym przyjęto zarówno ilościowe, jak i jakościowe metody badawcze w celu pozyskania danych terenowych od 54 przedsiębiorców w czterech różnych miastach za pomocą kwestionariusza oraz częściowo ustrukturyzowanych wywiadów bezpośrednich. Przedsiębiorcy wnoszą m.in. wkład społeczny oraz ekonomiczny w rozwój obu krajów. Wydaje się, że czynniki pozytywne („pull”) mają większy wpływ na przedsiębiorczość niż czynniki negatywne („push”).
Year
Issue
Pages
130-158
Physical description
Dates
published
2019-03-21
Contributors
References
  • 1. Ács, Z.J., Desai, S., & Hessels, J. (2008). Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions. Small Business Economics, 31, 219–234.
  • 2. Al-Ali, N., Black, R., & Koser, K. (2001). Refugees and transnationalism: The experience of Bosnians and Eritreans in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies,27(4), 615–634.
  • 3. Aldrich, H.E., & Waldinger, R. (1990). Ethnicity and entrepreneurship. Annual Review of Sociology, 16(1), 111–135.
  • 4. Bagwell, S. (2006). UK Vietnamese businesses: Cultural influences and intracultural differences. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 24(1), 51–69.
  • 5. Bailey, T., & Waldinger, R. (1991). Primary, secondary, and enclave labor markets: A training system approach. American Sociological Review, 56(4), A32–445.
  • 6. Basu, A., & Altinay, E. (2002). The interaction between culture and entrepreneurship in London’s immigrant businesses. International Small Business Journal, 20(4), 371–393.
  • 7. Baycan-Levent, T., & Nijkamp, P. (2007). Ethnic entrepreneurship in European cities: A comparative study of Amsterdam. In L.-P. Dana (Ed.), Handbook of research on ethnic minority entrepreneurship: A co-evolutionary view on resource management (pp. 323–336). UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.
  • 8. Blaschke, J., Boissevain, J., Grotenberg, H., Joseph, I., Morokvasic, M., & Ward, R. (1990). European trends in ethnic business. In R. Waldinger, H. Aldrich, & R. Ward(Eds.), Ethnic entrepreneurs: Immigrant business in industrial societies (pp. 79–105). London: Sage.
  • 9. Bull, I., & Willard, G. (1993). Towards a theory of entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(3), 183–195.
  • 10. Choenni, O.A. (1997). Veelsoortig assortiment; allochtoon ondernemerschap in Amsterdam als incorporatietraject 1965–1995.
  • 11. Clark, K., & Drinkwater, S. (2000). Pushed out or pulled in? Self-employment among ethnic minorities in England and Wales. Labour Economics, 7(5), 603–628.
  • 12. Dawson, C., & Henley, A. (2012). “Push” versus “pull” entrepreneurship: An ambiguous distinction?. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 18(6), 697–719.
  • 13. de Bruin, A., Brush, C., & Welter, F. (2007). Advancing a framework for coherent research on women’s entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 323–40.
  • 14. Elo, M. (2014). Diaspora networks in international business and transnational entrepreneurship – A literature review. Zentral Working Papers in Transnational Studies, (40/2014). November.
  • 15. Fineman, S. (1977). The achievement motive construct and its measurement: Where are we now?. British Journal of Psychology, 68(1), 1–22.
  • 16. Gilad, B., & Levine, P. (1986). A behavioral model of entrepreneurial supply. Journal of Small Business Management, 24(4), 45–54.
  • 17. Greenfield, S., & Nayak, A. (1992). The management information needs of very small businesses: gender differences. In R. Welford (Ed.), The management information needs of very small businesses: Gender differences. Bradford: European Research Press.
  • 18. Gries, T., & Naudé, W.A. (2010). Entrepreneurship and structural economic transformation. Small Business Economics Journal, 34(1), 13–29.
  • 19. Hakim, C. (1989, June). New recruits to self-employment in the 1980s. Employment Gazette, 286–97.
  • 20. Grinnell, R.M., & Unrau, Y.A. (2005). Social work research and evaluation: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • 21. International Labour Organisation (ILO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and World Bank Group (WBG). (2015). The contribution of labour mobility to economic growth. Joint paper for the 3rd meeting of G20 Employment Working Group, Cappadocia, Turkey, 23–25 July 2015.
  • 22. Ionescu, D. (2006). Engaging diasporas as development partners for home and destination countries: Challenges for policymakers. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.
  • 23. Johnson, B.R. (1990). Toward a multidimensional model of entrepreneurship: The case of achievement motivation and the entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(3), 39–54.
  • 24. Kariv, D., Menzies, T.V., Brenner, G.A., & Filion, L.J. (2009). Transnational networking and business performance: Ethnic entrepreneurs in Canada. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 21(3), 239–264.
  • 25. Kirkwood, J. (2009). Motivational factors in a push-pull theory of entrepreneurship. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24(5), 346–364.
  • 26. Kwaven, B.C.V. (2014). Cameroonian Diaspora Entrepreneurship in Germany: A case study on Cameroonian Entrepreneurship in Berlin (Master’s thesis). International SEPT Program, University of Leipzig.
  • 27. Lewis, W.A. (1954). Economic development with unlimited supplies of labour. The Manchester School, 28(2), 139–191.
  • 28. Li, P.S. (1993). Chinese investment and business in Canada: Ethnic entrepreneurship reconsidered. Pacific Affairs, 219–243.
  • 29. Masurel, E., Nijkamp, P., & Vindigni, G. (2004). Breeding places for ethnic entrepreneurs: A comparative marketing approach. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 16, 77–86.
  • 30. McClelland, D.C. (1961). The achieving society. Princeton: Van Nostrand.
  • 31. Mersha, T., Sriram, V., & Hailu, M. (2010). Nurturing entrepreneurs in Africa: Some lessons from Ethiopia. Journal of Global Business Advancement, 3(2), 155–175.
  • 32. Mitchell, B., & Co, M.J. (2007). Ethnic entrepreneurship in South Africa: An embedded approach to the study among various ethnic groups. In L.-P. Dana (Ed.), Handbook of research on ethnic minority entrepreneurship: A co-evolutionary view on resource management (pp. 681–706). UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.
  • 33. Mohamoud, A., & Formson-Lorist, C. (2014). Diaspora and migrant entrepreneurs as social and economic investors in homeland development: Harnessing the bridging potential of migrant and diaspora entrepreneurs for transformative and inclusive development.
  • 34. Naudé, W. (2013). Entrepreneurship and economic development: Theory, evidence and policy (Discussion Paper No. 7507). University of Maastricht, IZA.
  • 35. Paulose, A. (2011). Motivation to become entrepreneurs: The case of Indian immigrants to New Zealand (Master’s thesis).
  • 36. Petersen, W. (1980). Concepts of ethnicity. In S. Thernstrom, A. Orlov, & Oscar Handlin (Eds.), Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups (pp. 234–42). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • 37. Phizacklea, A., & Ram, M. (1995). Ethnic entrepreneurship in comparative perspective. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 1(1), 48–58.
  • 38. Retrieved on 20 August 2017 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13552559510079760. Rada, C. (2007). Stagnation or transformation of a dual economy through endogenous productivity growth. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 31(5), 711–740.
  • 39. Ramadani, V., Rexhepi, G., Gërguri-Rashiti, S., Ibraimi, S., & Dana, L. P. (2014). Ethnic entrepreneurship in Macedonia: The case of Albanian entrepreneurs. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 23(3), 313–335.
  • 40. Riddle, L., Hrivnak, G.A., & Nielsen, T.M. (2010). Transnational diaspora entrepreneurship in emerging markets: Bridging institutional divides. Journal of International Management, 16(4), 398–411.
  • 41. Rusinovic, K. (2008). Transnational embeddedness: Transnational activities and networks among first-and second-generation immigrant entrepreneurs in the Netherlands. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34(3), 431–451.
  • 42. Schumpeter, J.A. (1947). The creative response in economic history. The Journal of Economic History, 7(2), 149–159.
  • 43. Segal, G., Borgia, D., & Schoenfeld, J. (2005). The motivation to become an entrepreneur. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 11(1), 42–57. Retrieved on 20 July 2017 from https:// doi.org/10.1108/13552550510580834.
  • 44. Sen, A. (1985). Commodities and capabilities. Amsterdam: North Holland.
  • 45. Sen, A. (1992). Inequality re-examined. Oxford: Clarendon.
  • 46. Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 47. Sen, A. (2000). Development as freedom. New York: Anchor Books.
  • 48. Shane, S., Locke, E.A., & Collins, C.J. (2003). Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 257–279.
  • 49. Shepherd, D.A., Douglas, E.J., & Shanley, M. (2000). New venture survival: Ignorance, external shocks, and risk reduction strategies. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5–6), 393–410.
  • 50. Stam, E., & Wennberg, K. (2009). The roles of R&D in new firm growth. Small Business Economics, 33(1), 77–89.
  • 51. Takamori, H., & Yamashita, S. (1973). Measuring socioeconomic development: Indicators, development paths, and international comparisons. The Developing Economies, 11(2), 111–145.
  • 52. Verheul, I., Stel, A.V., & Thurik, R. (2006). Explaining female and male entrepreneurship at the country level. Entrepreneurship and regional development, 18(2), 151–183.
  • 53. Volery, T. (2007). Ethnic entrepreneurship: A theoretical framework. In L.-P. Dana (Ed.). Handbook of research on ethnic minority entrepreneurship: A co-evolutionary view on resource management (pp. 30–41). UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.
  • 54. Wadhwa, V., Saxenian, A., Freeman, R.B., & Gereffi, G. (2009). America’s loss is the world’s gain: America’s new immigrant entrepreneurs, Part 4.
  • 55. Waldinger, R. (1984). Immigrant enterprise in the New York garment industry. Social Problem, 32(1), 60–71.
  • 56. Waldinger, R. (1986). Through the eye of the needle: Immigrants and enterprise in New York’s garment trades. New York: New York University Press.
  • 57. Waldinger, R., Aldrich, H., & Ward, R. (1990). Opportunities, group characteristics and strategies. In R. Waldinger, H. Aldrich, & R. Ward (Eds.), Ethnic entrepreneurs:Immigrant business in industrial societies (pp. 13–48). London: Sage.
  • 58. Wei, Y., & Balasubramanyam, V.N. (2006). Diaspora and development. The World Economy, 29(11), 1599–1609.
  • 59. Worthington, I., Ram, M., & Jones, T. (2006). ‘Giving something back’: A study of corporate social responsibility in UK South Asian small enterprises. Business Ethics:A European Review, 15(1), 95–108.
  • 60. Yinger, M.J. (1985). Ethnicity. Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 151–80.
  • 61. Zhou, M. (2004). Revisiting ethnic entrepreneurship: Convergencies, controversies, and conceptual advancements. International Migration Review, 38(3), 1040–1074.
  • 62. Roundy, P.T., Brockman, B.K., & Bradshaw, M. (2017). The resilience of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 8, 99–104.
  • 63. Roundy, P.T., Bradshaw, M., & Brockman, B.K. (2018). The emergence of entrepreneurial ecosystems: A complex adaptive systems approach. Journal of Business Research, 86, 1–10.
  • 64. Rumelt, R.P. (1984). Towards a strategic theory of the firm. In R. Lamb (Ed.), Competitive strategic management (pp. 556–570). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • 65. Saxenian, A. (2002). Silicon Valley’s new immigrant high-growth entrepreneurs. Economic Development Quarterly, 16(1), 20–31.
  • 66. Segers, J.P. (2015, June). Building an entrepreneurial ecosystem. Paper presented at the University-Industry Interaction Conference (UIIC), June, Berlin, Germany.
  • 67. Senor, D., & Singer, S. (2009). Startup nation: The story of Israel’s economic miracle. New York, NY: Hachette Book Group.
  • 68. Shostack, L. (1984). Designing services that deliver. Harvard Business Review, 62(1), 133–139.
  • 69. Spigel, B. (2016). Developing and governing entrepreneurial ecosystems: The structure of entrepreneurial support programs in Edinburgh, Scotland. International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, 7(2), 141–160.
  • 70. Spigel, B. (2017). The relational organization of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(1), 49–72.
  • 71. Spigel, B., & Harrison, R. (2018). Toward a process theory of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 12(1), 151–168.
  • 72. Spilling, O.R. (1996). The entrepreneurial system: On entrepreneurship in the context of a mega-event. Journal of Business Research, 36(1), 91–103.
  • 73. Stam, E. (2014). The Dutch entrepreneurial ecosystem. Birch research. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2473475.
  • 74. Stam, E. (2015). Entrepreneurial ecosystems and regional policy: A sympathetic critique. European Planning Studies, 23(9), 1759–1769.
  • 75. Stam, E., & Spigel, B. (2017). Entrepreneurial ecosystems. In R. Blackburn, D. De Clercq, J. Heinonen, & Z. Wang, (Eds.). Handbook for entrepreneurship and small business (pp. 407–422). London: SAGE.
  • 76. Stangler, D., & Bell-Masterson, J. (2015). Measuring an entrepreneurial ecosystem. Kauffman Foundation Research Series on City, Metro, and Regional Entrepreneurship, March, 1–16.
  • 77. Tansley, A.G. (1935). The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology, 16(3), 284–307.
  • 78. Teece, D.J. (1982). Towards an economic theory of the multiproduct firm. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 3(1), 39–63.
  • 79. Teece, D.J. (1984). Economic analysis and strategic management. California Management Review, 26(3), 87–110.
  • 80. Teece, D.J. (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: The nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. Strategic Management Journal, 28(13), 1319–1350.
  • 81. Teece, D.J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509–533.
  • 82. Thornton, P.H., Ocasio, W., & Lounsbury, M., (2012). The institutional logics perspective: A new approach to culture, structure and process. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 83. World Economic Forum. (2013). Entrepreneurial ecosystems around the globe and company growth dynamics. Report Summary for the Annual Meeting of the New Champions 2013. World Economic Forum. Retrieved from http://reports.weforum.org/entrepreneurialecosystems-around-the-globe-and-early-stage-company-growth-dynamics/wp-content/blogs.dir/34/mp/files/ pages/files/nme-entrepreneurship-report-jan-8-2014.pdf.
  • 84. Zacharakis, A.L., Shepherd, D.A., & Coombs, J.E. (2003). The development of venturecapital-backed internet companies: An ecosystem perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(2), 217–231.
  • 85. Zander, U., & Kogut, B. (1995). Knowledge and the speed of the transfer and imitation of organizational capabilities: An empirical test. Organization Science, 6(1), 76–92.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
1644-9584
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-6c017bd9-9477-4f80-8387-ac83b9eb40b5
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.