The study looks at the trade quantification, and documents single stages of the Russian-Chinese trade exchange in Kyakhta and May-ma-chen between 1727 and 1861. It is divided into three sections. The first one deals with an appraisal of available volume indicators that relates to the exchange trading. Based on findings and confronting other analysed spheres, the author defines the basic stages of the trade development in the monitored period. What he demonstrates is that the trade was greatly affected by political and geographical factors, and the fact that both countries did not attach equal importance to it. The trade in Kyakhta had never reached extent it could have had, but fell into rapid decline as soon as an alternative, cheaper way to trade exchange between Russia and China had appeared. Yet it influenced the town and the whole region development, including culture and education spheres; in the second quarter of the 19th century it substantially contributed to Siberian economics, and in the early stage also to Russia industrialisation as it allowed Russia in economics terms to penetrate to the Far East. The final part deals with the global factors resulting in the decline, and the end of Russian-Chinese trade in Kyakhta, or replacement by other forms of trade exchange.