COMPENSATION IN THE CRIMINAL LAW – THE OBLIGATION TO REMEDY DAMAGE OR TO COMPENSATE FOR HARM
The new Penal Code chapter Va collects forfeiture and compensation measures: an obligation to remedy damages and exemplary damages. These measures were deprived of formal qualification for punitive measures. Underlining the compensatory nature of the obligation to repair the damage, and at the same time depriving it of certain elements in the field of retributive and protective functions, allows to make criminal law more comprehensive response. Maintaining an artificial and rigid separation between criminal law and civil law does not seem justified. However, the separation causes also some doubts. Particularly, doubts may be raised by insufficiently precise regulation of obligation to pay remedy damages and exemplary damages. It does not seem at all clear whether the rules on civil liability could be fully applicable when deciding the duty of art. 46 of Penal Code. The following issues should be decided: the ability to adjudicate interest when remedy and exemplary damages are ruled, the ability of insurance company to apply for remedy damages in criminal trial. Extending the scope of the impact of substantive civil law to criminal law should be followed by the consideration of the need for changes in the criminal procedure, by better adapting it to rule in matters essentially belonging to the civil law.
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