The article deals with the theoretical backgrounds of two-way interpreting training of future bachelor philologists in scientific and technical sphere through the research of translation, psycholinguistic, psychological, linguistic and methodological basics of interpreting/translation methods training. The definition of the concept of «translation» is given. The main point of interpreting/translation as a diversity process is considered and its specific features are determined. So, interpreting/translation can be defined as: – communication where double components and two languages are used, and which flows in the terms of the mutual influence of the source, a translator/interpreter and recipient; – the process with the help of which the source language text is transformed into target language text; – the product which is received as a result of an interpreting/translation process. The basic phases of the interpreting/translation process are emphasized from the psychological point of view. According to it, the interpreting/translation process consists of three main phases: perception of the source text; taking of decision concerning the interpreting/translation; producing of the target language text. The scientific and technical style, which is the ground to the interpreting /translation training, is characterized. Scientific and technical literature is characterized by the widespread use of the terms. We should remember that when making interpreting/translation of scientific and technical texts. The term is considered as precise and monosemantic definition for the specific sphere. Thus, it requires accuracy in interpreting/translation. Therefore the translator/interpreter that deals with interpreting/translation in scientific and technical sphere should know the terminology of relevant sphere. Scientific and technical literature is also characterized by clear and logical statements. Usually, they are unemotional and this fact supposes large textual proximity to the source text. The place of interpreting/translation is considered in the structure of professional competence of the translator/interpreter in the terms of knowledge, skills and sub-skills, which a specialist should have. Thus, the exercises for interpreting/translation training can be divided into: exercises that we can use for all kinds of interpreting/translation, for interpreting only, for translation only, and exercises that we can use for training of specific types of interpreting or translation.