ФІЛОСОФСЬКІ ЗАСАДИ РИТМІКИ ЕМІЛЯ ЖАК-ДАЛЬКРОЗА
The philosophical foundations of rhythmic of Emile Jacques-Dalcroze
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The article reveals the philosophical foundations of the system of rhythmic education of Emile Jacques-Dalcroze, in its context the universal philosophical categories of "movement", "time" and "space" as fine motor skills, temporality and spatiality are concretized. The fundamental philosophical concept of rhythmic, which is a category of corporality that defines the sensual nature of human existence, is defined. The origins of rhythmic in ancient philosophical thought, in particular in the works of Plato, who outlined the epistemological and hedonic potential of human movement, through which he/she perceives the rhythm and harmony of the universe are found. The main aspects that bring together the thoughts and activities of Dalcroze with the ideals of the ancient Greeks are highlighted: musical-rhythmic activity in the group which is similar to the functioning of the choir in ancient Greek tragedy; its main goal is a balanced and harmonious development of man, his aesthetic and physical education; a gesture and a plastic movement are the means of expression, when the expressive value of dance in the ancient tragedy, inextricably connected to the music and poetry of a single rhythm, is similar to rhythm-plastic of Dalcroze. The consonance of ideas of the teacher-musician Dalcroze and philosopher M. Merleau-Ponty on the need to establish communication between mind (imagination, emotions, soul) and matter (body, feelings, action) are identified. The influence of praxeology, aesthetics and philosophy of art education on the theoretical justification of rhythm as an effective means of harmonization of the personality through the music-motional activities was found out. It is proposed to shift the focus from the aesthetic and intellectual perception of music on procedural. In order to justify ideas of Dalcroze in the native discourse the ideas Valeriy Kosiak about philosophical interpretation of man and his physicality in various forms of culture are highlighted. Special attention deserves the scientist’s interpretation of rhythm as rhythm-plastic and definition of dance by the language in which a sense of life as an incarnated rhythm is expressed.
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