This text, on its theoretical plane, sketches the differentia specifica existing between Polish (applied) linguistics and didactics (methodology) of foreign language teaching and learning/ glottodidactics as well as probes contexts of teaching the native versus the other (i.e. foreign) language – based on English. After referring to some of the most important works found in the (Polish) literature (all concerned with teaching and learning the English language), in the further part of the article, the author advises on current education system in Poland. The empirical section, in turn, quotes the most recent figures excerpted from the data published by the Central Statistical Office in Poland, and regarding the number of speakers of particular modern foreign languages (based on primary, lower secondary and secondary education in the preceding school year, i.e. 2016–2017).