Z badań nad wartościami i wartościowaniem: niektóre kwestie metodologiczne
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Researches on values and valuation: Some methodological issues
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The article deals with some basic problems concerning human values and methodological problems arising in assessment of values. A fundamental distinction on objective and subjective values is taken as a starting point. For social sciences an subjectivistic point of view is the most common. However in psychology one can define two general ways of understanding human values: values as believes (conscious, cognitive structures) and values as intrinsic (unconscious) criteria of choice. As consequence one can analyse valuation on both levels: exploring preferences declared by people and examining preferences evident by their choices and behaviour. Methodological problems concerning measurement of values are mentioned: such as ipsativeness and mental processes of choice and valuation, social desirability, and simplifications in data interpretation. Past and current research trends are mentioned. Especially interesting research concern the process of valuation, defined as complex process of assessment and choice and in some theories even as meaning giving. Possible problems and disturbances in valuation are described and illustrated by research findings.
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