Development of cognitiveactivity of preschool children in the family
The article contains the results of research of influence of family on preschool children’s development of cognitive activity. The structure of cognitive activity of children of preschool age is considered, that includes emotional, operating and evaluative components. The following criteria of cognitive activity of preschool children are analyzed: display a child’s special personal interest with an object or phenomenon, emotional attitude toward the process of cognition, presence of initiative gradual actions (practical and mental), an attitude toward the results of the activity in case of success or failure. To study the influence of family on the development of cognitive activity of preschoolers, the author developed a comprehensive methodology that incorporates techniques of observation, interviews, questionnaires, natural experiment. The article discusses various ways of parents’ influence on a child during their joint communication and cognitive activity the indicators of that are: adult’s emotional attitude to the subject or phenomena that interest the child; availability of adult’s guidance, that directs the searching actions of a child; the evaluation of the character, actions and qualities of the child by parents; the presence of references that encourage the child and express confidence in their abilities. The study of methods of parents’ influences on children allowed to distinguish next groups of families: constructive way of influence (1 group) – 17% in control and experimental groups; with the imperative way of influence (2 group) – 50% families of control group and 43% of experimental group; with the indifferent way of influence (3 group) – 33% families of the control group and 40% of the experimental group. The study allowed characterizing the content and level of cognitive activity of children of secondary preschool age. It was also established that for the development of cognitive activity of preschoolers in family matters not only the content of the communication, emotional and cognitive activities, and the way adults influence on a child. It is proved that constructive influence of parents on the child contributes to the development of a cognitive activity of preschoolers. Prospects for further research are seen in the study of gender aspects of this issue.
Publication order reference