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2011 | 2(18) | 383-410
Article title

Zachodnia Ukraina – początek sowietyzacji (wrzesień–grudzień 1939 roku). Spojrzenie historyka ukraińskiego

Content
Title variants
EN
Western Ukraine – the beginning of the Sovietisation (September–December1939). From the Perspective of the Ukrainian Historician
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
Western Ukraine – the beginning of the Sovietisation (September–December1939). From the Perspective of the Ukrainian Historician On 17 September 1939 the Red Army attacked eastern Poland. On 28 September the USSR and Germany signed a pact which delineated, among others, a new border between Polish territories occupied by the two countries. The Soviets occupied the territory east of the San, Bug, Narew and Pisa Rivers. The official names for the territory were: Western Ukraine and Western Belarus. Lithuania was also included in their zone of influence. Functionaries of the communist party and security service came to Poland together with the Red Army. They were tasked to gain full control over the occupied territory. The Soviet security service commenced arrests of those accused of anticommunist activity, Polish administration representatives, the intelligentsia, and the so-called “enemies of the people” i.e. land owners and entrepreneurs. Tragic was the fate of the Polish POWs detained in special camps. The Soviets began organizing their own local administration. They introduced a new political system. They forbade the activity of the political parties and social organizations, and new ones following the Soviet model were set up in their place. There were also radical socio-economic changes. In October 1939 a Soviet-controlled election to the People’s Assembly of Eastern Ukraine was held. The deputies adopted a declaration unifying the territory of Eastern Ukraine with that of the Ukrainian Soviet Social Republic. In November the Polish territory was incorporated into the USSR. The inhabitants of the western districts of Ukraine were granted Soviet citizenship. Wołodymyr Baran The Sovietization process was quite intensive and was carried out on a massive scale. It influenced all areas of life, including the political and socio-economic systems as well as the spiritual and cultural spheres. Such a radical transformation had severe consequences for millions of people. On 17 September 1939 the Red Army attacked eastern Poland. On 28 September the USSR and Germany signed a pact which delineated, among others, a new border between Polish territories occupied by the two countries. The Soviets occupied the territory east of the San, Bug, Narew and Pisa Rivers. The official names for the territory were: Western Ukraine and Western Belarus. Lithuania was also included in their zone of influence. Functionaries of the communist party and security service came to Poland together with the Red Army. They were tasked to gain full control over the occupied territory. The Soviet security service commenced arrests of those accused of anticommunist activity, Polish administration representatives, the intelligentsia, and the so-called “enemies of the people” i.e. land owners and entrepreneurs. Tragic was the fate of the Polish POWs detained in special camps. The Soviets began organizing their own local administration. They introduced a new political system. They forbade the activity of the political parties and social organizations, and new ones following the Soviet model were set up in their place. There were also radical socio-economic changes. In October 1939 a Soviet-controlled election to the People’s Assembly of Eastern Ukraine was held. The deputies adopted a declaration unifying the ter- ritory of Eastern Ukraine with that of the Ukrainian Soviet Social Republic. In November the Polish territory was incorporated into the USSR. The inhabitants of the western districts of Ukraine were granted Soviet citizenship. The Sovietization process was quite intensive and was carried out on a massive scale. It influenced all areas of life, including the political and socio-economic systems as well as the spiritual and cultural spheres. Such a radical transformation had severe consequences for millions of people.
Keywords
Contributors
  • Katedra Nowożytnej i Najnowszej Historii Ukrainy Wołyński Uniwersytet Narodowy im. Łesi Ukrainki Łuck
References
  • M. Mieltiuchow, Sowietsko-polskije wojny. Wojenno-politiczeskoje protiwostojanije 1918– –1939 gg., Moskwa 2001 T. Jasudowicz, Widmo krąży po Europie. Bezprawie paktu Ribbentrop –Mołotow, Toruń 1993 P. Eberhardt, Polska granica wschodnia 1939–1945, Warszawa 1993 A. Knorowski, Paragrafy niezgody. Agresja sowiecka na Polskę w 1939 r. w świetle ówczesnych norm międzynarodowego prawa wojennego, Warszawa 2002 I. Iljuszyn, O. Pszennikow, Dijalnist´ operatywno-czekistśkych hrup NKWD u zachidnych obłastiach Ukrajiny (wereseń–żowteń 1939 r.), „Z Archiwiw WUCzK-GPU-NKWD-KGB” 2000, nr 2/4, s. 424–433 W. Danyłenko, Likwidacija Polśkoji derżawy ta wstanowłennia radianśkoho reżymu w Zachidnij Ukrajini, „Ukrajinśkyj Istorycznyj Żurnał” 2006, nr 3, s. 123 S. Jaczyński, Zagłada oficerów Wojska Polskiego na Wschodzie, wrzesień 1939 – maj 1940, Warszawa 2000 W. Baran, W. Tokarśkyj, Ukrajina. Zachidni zemli 1939–1941 rr., Lwiw 2009 W. Bonusiak, Polityka ludnościowa i ekonomiczna ZSRS na okupowanych ziemiach polskich w latach 1939–1941 („Zachodnia Ukraina” i „Zachodnia Białoruś”), Rzeszów 2006 G. Hryciuk, Polacy we Lwowie 1939–1944. Życie codzienne, Warszawa 2000 A. Głowacki, Sowieci wobec Polaków na ziemiach wschodnich Rzeczypospolitej 1939–1941, Łódź 1998 C. Grzelak, Kresy w czerwieni. Agresja Związku Sowieckiego na Polskę w 1939 roku, Warszawa 2001 Sbornik zakonow SSSR i ukazow Prezidiuma Wierchownogo Sowieta SSSR 1938–1944 gg., Moskwa 1945 I. Biłas, Represywno-karalna systema w Ukrajini 1917–1953. Suspilno-politycznyj ta istoryko-prawowyj analiz, t. 1, Kyjiw 1994 T. Wronśka, S. Kulczyćkyj, Radianśka pasportna systema, „Ukrajinśkyj Istorycznyj Żurnał” 1999, nr 4, s. 6
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-7503e7c3-7cc4-4f39-809a-455681e113eb
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