Współczesne zagrożenie terrorystyczne w Unii Europejskiej w ocenie Europolu i Eurojustu
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Current terrorism threat in the European Union in the assessment of Europol and Eurojust
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The main aim of the paper is to discuss the nature and characteristics of current terrorism in the European Union with particular emphasis given to the reports published by Europol and Eurojust in the years 2017-2019. The issues addressed include, among others, the threat of terrorism posed by jihadist terrorists, left- and right-wing extremists and separatists. Based on the data published by Eurojust, the issue of individuals arrested and convicted in the EU for terrorist activity is also analyzed. The first hypothesis states that the level of contemporary terrorism threat, also on EU territory, cannot be assessed solely on the basis of information on failed, prevented and accomplished attacks. It is an important determinant, but needs to be complemented by other key factors such as the number of individuals arrested for terrorism or the number of court rulings referring to individuals arrested for terrorism or the rate of court rulings referring to individuals sentenced for terrorism. The above three components make up the so called terrorism threat matrix for a given territory at a given time. The second hypothesis claims that the terrorism which takes place on EU territory is of a hybrid nature and includes three main aspects. The first one is related to the extensive range of innovative elements of tactics or strategy. The second one is connected with the possibility of attack on various far detached targets that have to do with critical infrastructure, trade, tourism, sport and recreation, etc. The third one pertains to the diverse ideological inspiration of terrorists, be it Islam, separatism, extreme left- or right-wing ideology, single cause or something altogether different. The main research methods used in the text are: comparative analysis, systemic and institutional-legal approach.
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