2016 | Tom: 6 | Numer: 1 | 223-237
Article title

Odpowiedź Lowe’a na argument Ramseya przeciwko rozróżnieniu uniwersalia–indywidua

Title variants
The answer of Lowe to Ramsey’s argument against the distinction universal vs. indivi- dual
Languages of publication
At the beginning of this article Ramsey’s argumentation against universal‐particular distinction is presented. It is based on the assumption that this division requires another one: namely, subject‐predicate distinction. This argumentation was a starting point for Lowe, who does not respect the aforementioned assumption. In his theory, there are not two but four categories, namely: substantial universals, non‐substantial universals, substantial particulars, and non‐substantial particulars. Two of these categories are categories of universals; the other two are categories of particulars. Lowe tries to de ne categories in an ontological way, that is, with essential use of ontological notions. These notions are rigid and non‐rigid existential de‐ pendence, which are themselves de ned in terms of necessity and existence. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of Lowe’s solution. In the rst place, it is con onted with Ramsey remarks. Then other objections are considered. Some of them do not respect the very idea of autonomous ‘ontological way’ in philosophy. Others concern Lowe’s particular version of it. Possible answers to all of these objections are presented, such that Lowe’s theory is defended. However, there is no ultimate conclusion here. In the author’s opinion autonomy and the value of ontology cannot be shown om a purely external position. We should rst assume that this discipline does make sense and then explore its virtues by using its notions.
Physical description
  • Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
  • Aaron, R.I. (1939). Two senses of the word universal. Mind. New Series, 48(190), 168–185.
  • Angelelli, I. (1967). Studies on Gottlob Frege and traditional philosophy. Dordrecht: Reidel.
  • Arystoteles (1975). Kategorie. W: Arystoteles. Kategorie i Hermeneutyka z dodaniem Isagogi Porfiriusza. (Przeł. K. Leśniak). Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
  • Ehring, D. (2004). Distinguishing universals from particulars. Analysis, 64(284), 326–332.
  • Hale, B. (2006). Universals and particulars: Ramsey’s scepticism (s. 177–204). W: P.F. Strawson & A. Chakrabarti (Red.). Universals, concepts and qualities: New essays on the meaning of predicates. Farnham: Ashgate.
  • Johnson, W.E. (1921). Logic (cz. I). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lowe, E.J. (2006). The four‑category ontology: A metaphysical foundation for natural science. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Luc, J. (2016a). Cztery współczesne koncepcje kategorii ontologicznych, Filozofia Nauki. (Przyjęty do publikacji).
  • Luc, J. (2016b). What are differences between ontological categories? A critique and attempt of modification of Lowe’s conception. (W przygotowaniu).
  • MacBride, F. (1998). Where are particulars and universals?. Dialectica, 52(3), 203–227.
  • MacBride, F. (2005). The particular–universal distinction: A dogma of metaphysics?, Mind, 114, 564–614.
  • Ramsey, F.P. (1925). Universals. Mind, 34(136), 401–417. (Przedruk w: Ramsey, F.P. (1931).
  • The foundations of mathematics and other logical essays. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, s. 112–134).
  • Ramsey, F.P. (1931). The foundations of mathematics and other logical essays. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
  • Russell, B. (1918). The philosophy of logical atomism. The Monist, 29(1), 32–63. (Przedruk w: Russell, B. (1956). The philosophy of logical atomism. London–New York: Routledge, s. 1–125).
  • Russell, B. (1956). The philosophy of logical atomism. London–New York: Routledge.
  • Sahlin, N.‑E. (1990). The philosophy of F.P. Ramsey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Schneider, L. (2009). The logic of the ontological square. Studia Logica: An International Journal for Symbolic Logic, 91(1), 25–51.
  • Simons, P. (1991). Ramsey, particulars, and universals. Theoria, 57(3), 150–161.
  • Westerhoff, J. (2005). Ontological categories. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.