PL EN


2013-2014 | 55-56 | 19-32
Article title

O sygnecie drukarskim Iwana Fiodorowa - polemicznie

Authors
Content
Title variants
EN
On the printer’s mark of Ivan Fiodorov – polemically
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
The printer’s mark was used for the first time in 1457 (Mainz Psalter), and rapidly found numerous followers. Initially its function was to protect the printer against profits being taken over by dishonest competitors. Over time, it has become a symbol of beliefs, outlook on life, and the sense of aesthetics of the printer/editor. Ivan Fiodorov designed his typographic mark in the 70 s of the 16th century for prints that were issued from his first own printing shop in Lviv. That mark, as well as the person of the master of the black art and his publications have been extensively described in the rich literature of the subject. This paper is an attempt at polemics with certain determinations of Russian and Ukrainian researchers on the subject of that mark, trying to prove that Ivan Fiodorov designed only one printer’s mark (and not two or three as it is claimed by some of the researchers), the differences observable in the Lviv and Ostrog prints being insignificant enough to justify the thesis of two variants of the same printer’s mark. Then the author presents numerous, some fairly controversial, hypotheses concerning the genesis and symbolism of Fiodorov’s printer’s mark. Most researchers assume that the iconographic motif placed on the mark – an inverted Latin letter “S” (the symbol of a river) with the arrow pointing upwards refers to the words of Nestor: Great are the benefits from book learning [. . . ] as we gain wisdom and moderation through the words of the books, as those are like rivers feeding the whole world. . . That interpretation is argued against by A. Gusieva who maintains that the ideological centre of the printer’s mark of Fiodorov was the shovel plough – a simple agricultural implement, seeking a similarity to it (the mark) in the shape of one of its elements. To support her thesis the Russian researcher cites the Postscriptum to the Lviv Apostol (Acts of the Apostles) which includes words of key importance for her argument: “shovel plough”, “sowing”, “grain”. In that manner, according to her, the printer refers to be Biblical phrase: “The Sower sows the Word”, perceiving there an analogy to the mission of education and culture proliferation among the people. The paper presents specific facts from the life of Fiodorov and demonstrates that the fragment cited in the text by Gusieva had been taken out of a broader context which totally changed the intent of the printer’s expression. The paper argues in favour of the aquatic symbolism of the iconographic motif placed on the printer’s mark of Ivan Fiodorov as the most adequate to the message it carries.
Year
Volume
Pages
19-32
Physical description
Dates
published
2015-05-21
Contributors
author
  • BIBLIOTEKA WYDZIAŁU HUMANISTYCZNEGO, Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin
References
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Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-768915c3-61c1-400f-ba27-c07bcad38214
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