Rozwój społecznej działalności opiekuńczej na ziemiach polskich
Development of the social custody activity on the polish teritory
Languages of publication
Poverty and distress have inseparably accompanied the mankind since the very beginning of civilization. In different époques different measures were taken to counteract this state of situation. The attitude of the ancient towards the poor differed, on the whole it was unfavourable, however, in the Roman Empire attempts at protecting the poor, disabled and orphaned children by the rulers could be noticed. Systematic help from the society was started in the Middle Ages alongside with the spread of Christianity, which treated the helping the neighbour as a reward to be received in eternal life. On the territory of Poland the institution, which started the help was the Catholic Church. Monastic orders were looking after the sick, maintaining the hospitals, which in those times offered shelter to the needy, not performing their treatment functions. The rulers, on the other hand, limited themselves only to giving regulations to prevent overspreading beggary. The simplest ways of helping were at that time giving alms and distributing food. Unfortunately, they it was only temporary measure and they did not solve the problem of the excluded as they did not eliminate the causes of the poverty. Not until 16th century did the thinkers such as Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski voice their opinions that it was most important to create work conditions for the poor to enable them to exist. Since that time the value of work and activity of the poor has been underlined in the theoretical conceptions (Mary Richmond) as well as realized practically (Stanisław Staszic and The Society of Hrubieszów). In the 19th traditional charity of Middle Ages was replaced by philanthropy, whose character was more connected with the economic questions. During the time of partitions the economic factor was closely related with the element of keeping up Polish national identity and realized by the Catholic Church as well as by the contemporary society.
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