PL EN


2015 | 1 | 77-94
Article title

Odbudowa dworców Kolei Warszawsko- -Wiedeńskiej i linii Warszawsko-Kaliskiej po I wojnie światowej: Pruszków – Grodzisk Mazowiecki – Żyrardów – Radziwiłłów oraz Teresin/Szymanów

Content
Title variants
EN
Rebuilding the stations of the Warsaw-Vienna Railway and of the Warsaw-Kalisz line after World War I: Pruszków – Grodzisk Mazowiecki – Żyrardów – Radziwiłłów and Teresin/ Szymanów
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
Railway station buildings, with beautiful structures and ornamentation, originating from the age-long tradition of the Polish building engineering, are well-established in our landscape. The architectural form of those railway stations is closely connected with the period of rebuilding the country after the destructions of World War I. The creative solutions of architects at that time, that included forms of so-called country style, now referred to as national or manor house ones, supported the reviving Polish state and were connected with a search for roots of own identity and the elimination of cultural traces of the occupant states. The railways, functioning in the period of partitions of Poland, were destroyed during military activities. The state of railway infrastructure in the reviving Poland was catastrophic. The end of the period of partitions and the turmoil of war was followed by the time of freedom and euphoria. The rebuilding of state structures of the country was undertaken immediately. In order to maintain and use the existing railway lines and build new ones, the Railway Routes Division was established within the Warsaw Railway Directorate. The design works connected with rebuilding the railway stations were performed in the architectural section of the Railway Routes Division and managed by Bronisław Brochwicz-Rogoyski, an experienced architect, whilst his deputies were Romuald Miller and Józef Wołkanowski. The design study, arranged by Rogoyski and Miller within the architectural section, faced various problems regarding reconstruction of railway stations, like a lack of archival technical files of the former railway buildings and, at the same time, due to the poor financial condition of the country after the war, a necessity to use the walls which had survived. Finally, two solutions were adopted at rebuilding railway station buildings: either their previous architectural form was restored with certain functional modifications or completely new buildings were designed, sometimes using the walls which had survived. In the latter case, the structures were reconstructed using the so-called country style. As early as in March 1920, there were reports in the press on first completed investments. At the turn of 1921 and 1922, building works at the 12 railway stations buildings in Pruszków, Żyrardów, Grodzisk, Radziwiłłów, Skierniewice, Teresin, Modlin, Zieleniec, Urle, Biała, Chotyłów and Terespol were completed. The author of most of the designs was the architect Romuald Miller. The head of the architectural section, Bronisław Brochwicz-Rogoyski, died in 1921. His successor was Romuald Miller, who held the post until 1924. The first group of rebuilt railway structures included the railway station buildings in Pruszków, Grodzisk Mazowiecki and Żyrardów. At each of those stations, there was a building before World War I, constructed at the turn of 1870s and 1880s by the Directorate of the Warsaw-Vienna Railway. Like on other stations of that line, they were typical brick buildings. The architectural form given to them during their reconstruction after war destructions was, on the one hand, an outcome of the recommendation in the architectonic section to use the country style and, one the other hand, the “polonization” of their architecture resulted, as it seems, from the political and patriotic obligation felt by the architects personally. The railway station buildings in Pruszków, Grodzisk Mazowiecki and Żyrardów were rebuilt using the relics of their old walls. The twin buildings in Radziwiłłów and Teresin/Szymanów were built anew. The rebuilding was planned for the years 1920-1922. It should be underlined that the principle of making the architectural form of railway station buildings uniform on the Warsaw-Vienna Railway (for example, the buildings in Żyrardów, Grodzisk Mazowiecki) or the Warsaw-Terespol Railway or the Vistula River Railroad (for example, wooden buildings at the railway stations in Gąsocin, Ciechanów) was executed as early as at the beginning of functioning or, in many cases, even during the construction of those lines. At that time, however, the typization of railway station buildings resulted primarily from the intention of maximum simplification and reduction of costs of their construction. On the other hand, making the architectural form of the railway stations uniform, executed in the first years after regaining independence by Poland, was a manifestation of their designers to give their architecture a mark of vernacularity and a Polish character.
Year
Issue
1
Pages
77-94
Physical description
Dates
published
2015
Contributors
  • architekt, Politechnika Warszawska Wydział Architektury
References
  • Brandt K.S., Dworce na małych stacjach Śląsk – Gdynia, „Inżynier kolejowy” 1931, nr 7.
  • Faryna-Paszkiewicz H., Geometria wyobraźni. Szkice o architekturze dwudziestolecia międzywojennego, Gdańsk 2003.
  • Frank A., Zniszczenia na kolejach polskich, „Przegląd Techniczny” 1922, nr 27-28.
  • Gadomski B., Aleksander Wasiutyński (1859-1944), [w:] Sylwetki profesorów Politechniki Warszawskiej, Warszawa 1984.
  • Gadomski B., Miller Romuald (1882-1945), [w:] Polski słownik biograficzny, t. 21, Wrocław 1976.
  • Glapińska K., Dworce kolejowe w Pruszkowie, Grodzisku Mazowieckim, Żyrardowie i Radziwiłłowie. Wstępne opracowanie konserwatorskie, Warszawa 1974, mps w archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków w Warszawie.
  • Góralski A., Stacja kolejowa Ruda Guzowska (Żyrardów) w latach 1845-1914, [w:] Stawarz A. (red.), Gdy do Grodziska ruszył „parochód”, Grodzisk Mazowiecki 1990.
  • Jaroszewski T.S., Od klasycyzmu do nowoczesności. O architekturze polskiej XVIII, XIX i XX wieku, Warszawa 1996.
  • Karpiński A., Stanisław Wysocki projektant i budowniczy Drogi Żelaznej Warszawsko-Wiedeńskiej, Warszawa, ok. 1995.
  • Kiślański Z., Porównawczy przegląd budowli kolejowych, „Przegląd Techniczny” 1882.
  • Krzyczkowski J., Nowe funkcje dworców kolejowych, [w:] Szmygin B., Wartość funkcji w obiektach zabytkowych, Warszawa 2014.
  • Lisińska H., Dworzec kolejowy Żyrardów, Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa, 1998, archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków w Warszawie.
  • Łoza S., Architekci i budowniczowie w Polsce, Warszawa 1954.
  • Mielczarek B., Szkice z dziejów Pruszkowa, „Rocznik Pruszkowski” 1979.
  • Muszyński M., Dworzec kolejowy Radziwiłłów, Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa, 1977, archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków w Warszawie.
  • Nowe dworce osobowe Dyrekcji Kolei Warszawskiej, „Przegląd Techniczny” 1921, nr 50.
  • Olszewski A.K., Nowa forma w architekturze polskiej 1900-1925, Wrocław 1967
  • Paszke A., Dworce kolejowe Drogi Żelaznej Warszawsko-Wiedeńskiej (I dystansu) w latach 1845-1912, [w:] Stawarz A. (red.), Gdy do Grodziska ruszył „parochód”, Grodzisk Mazowiecki 1990.
  • Paszke A, Jerczyński M., Koziarski S.M., 150 lat Drogi Żelaznej Warszawsko-Wiedeńskiej, Warszawa 1995.
  • Polskie Koleje Państwowe 1918-1938, praca zbiorowa, Warszawa 1929.
  • Roguska J., Z dziejów kształtowania się masowej architektury utylitarnej. Dworce w Królestwie Polskim, [w:] Architektura i urbanistyka w krajobrazie historycznym Królestwa Polskiego 1815-1914. Materiały Sesji Naukowej zorganizowanej przez Stowarzyszenie Konserwatorów Zabytków w Radziejowicach w dniach od 6 do 8 maja 1989, Warszawa 1992.
  • Sprawozdanie z działalności Dyrekcji Kolei Państwowych w Warszawie, Warszawa 1928.
  • Stefański K., Ludzie, którzy zbudowali Łódź. Leksykon architektów i budowniczych miasta (do 1939 roku), Łódź 2009.
  • Tabak K., Rola dworca kolejowego w Gdyni w kreowaniu wizerunku nowoczesnego miasta, [w:] Konstantynów D., Omilanowska M. (red.), Polska nad Bałtykiem, Gdańsk 2012.
  • Tucholski Z., Powojenna odbudowa Muzeum Komunikacji w Warszawie, „Kronika Warszawy” 2012, nr 1.
  • Warchoł M., Dworzec kolejowy Pruszków, Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa, 2005, archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków w Warszawie.
  • Wasiutyński A., Drogi żelazne: tabor i technika ruchu kolejowego. Projektowanie drogi żelaznej. Budowa spodnia i wierzchnia. Połączenia torów. Stacye. Sygnalizacya i urządzenia zabezpieczające, Warszawa 1910.
  • Wierzbicka B., Sejm i Senat: architektura i wnętrza, Warszawa 1993.
  • Związki i stowarzyszenia techniczne, Koło Architektów, sprawozdanie z posiedzenia, „Przegląd Techniczny” 1920, nr 12.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
0029-8247
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-782ae582-0e88-4e2f-8231-9e9e29e665e3
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.