Rola instrumentów pochodnych w kryzysie finansowym 2008/2009
The role of derivatives in global financial crisis 2008/2009
Languages of publication
The article presents the development of the financial crisis in the United States in 2008/2009, which led to the global financial crisis. The aim of the paper is to systematize the knowledge of the reasons of the crisis. The author shows the correlation among the elements that caused the economy breakdown. The text describes the inception of subprime credits, i.e. mortgages granted to the individuals with poor credit history, securitization and expansion of mortgage and asset-backed securities derived from the subprime credits. The mechanism of the securitization has been broadly described, as well as the idea of the Collateralized Mortgage Obligation presented in 1977. The other derivatives mentioned in the article are Asset Backed Securities, Mortgage Backed Securities, Collateralized Debt Obligations and Credit Default Swaps. The definitions and the clarification of their meaning are supported by the explanation why the investors have been lured and fascinated by them. The author also answers the question why the derivatives became a serious threat to the economic and financial stability. The next problem is the legal context of the crisis, for example the changes brought by Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 which allowed the banks to join commercial and investment activity. Such a change made the banks start to compete, to create and to sell Asset Backed Securities, Mortgage Backed Securities, Collateralized Debt Obligations and Credit Default Swaps on a large scale. The next problem described in the text is the evolution of the shadow banking sector, i.e. the parallel banking sector, as well as the large, complex financial institutions (LCFIs) in the 1970s. The another issue is the creation and the burst of the housing bubble. The author presents the development of the real estate and mortgage market commenced by Home Mortgage Disclosure Act and Community Reinvestment Act and supported by Government Sposored Enterprises: Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Among the causes of the global financial crisis the important role is attributed to the credit rating agencies. They have been paid by the financial institutions to prepare the credit ratings of the risky financial instruments. Moreover they were basing on the old models. As the result, the ratings were much overstated and provided false information to the investors. The last part of the article presents how the crisis spread in the United States and how it affected the other economies.
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