Optymalizacja podatkowa w działalności przedsiębiorstw – cele, narzędzia, ryzyko oraz korzyści
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The article presents an analysis of international tax optimization. The text includes definitions, aims and instruments of fiscal optimization. Firstly, an important thing is that optimization must be in accordance with applicable law. Secondly, the main aim of the optimization is the maximization of company`s gross profit. Striving for this objective is possible because of such tools as transfer pricing, license fees, managerial fees, dividends and loans. The existence of tax havens and offshore centres is also very important in optimisation mechanism. The article presents the main places of their occurrence. Additionally, author describes potential costs and benefits, which are connected with fiscal optimization methods. On the one hand, costs are associated with lack of tax legislation, high administrative fees and conflict of interest. On the other hand, benefits are associated with minimization of tax burden, cost`s reductions, maximization of gross profit and strengthen competitive position. The aforementioned issue is illustrated by a few examples of transactions conducted by companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The majority of Polish companies use tax optimization in the Netherlands and Cyprus.
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