Problemy pejzażu kulturowego wsi
PROBLEMS OF THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF THE COUNTRYSIDE
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The subject-matter of the article is the appraisal of the problem of cultural identity of the countryside in the process of historic conditionings as a synthesis of interdependencies of natural and man-made factors on a specific area. Considerations comprise a modern process of impendencies threatening the cultural panorama, a brief discussion on hitherto forms of protection and finally proposals concerning integrated protection covering all fields that make cultural values as well as some methodological comments. And here are the most important statements. A cultural picture of the countryside is the history recorded in a concrete landscape; its shape and identification have been affected by a number of factors both original nature-derived as well as secondary man-made ones. A similarity of factors and historical unity of vast areas decided of the formation of features that were common and determinant for each country and region, the sum of which represents the richness of the cultural panorama and human attainments. Next to its properties recorded on the scene of the outside world, the cultural panorama has also its non-material dimensions without which external forms could not get crystallized. The field of spiritual culture seems to drift us away from a traditional scope of activities dictated by professional limits; it must however be always kept in mind, as its contribution conditions the behaviour of the content inherent in the material substance and form. The cultural panorama is not invariable. It is subject to evolutions and transformations; it may be either enriched or reduced. Its behaviour during transformation is of essential importance, just as it represents roots of the social link, awareness and self-determination of regional communities and nations, capable of deciding of their lives and persistence in face of an inevitable passing away of individuals by the law of nature. In a historical process a picture of the countryside developed harmonously when works of men remained in a logical relation to a specific area, of whom they were an integral part. A menance to the cultural landscape appeared when the balance of the functioning of the ecosystem and component of both material and non-material nature specific for the function and identity of the rural body got disturbed. The present day brings with it transformations on an unprecedented scale and at a very rapid pace. Without going into the appraisal of the situation as a whole it can easily be seen that the present pace of urbanization results not only in devastation of the ecosystem but also in destruction of the entire cultural areas. This can be noticed in: — degradation of the natural environment due to an excessive depletion of its resources, — decline and disintegration of social links as well as disappearance of characteristics individualizing rural bodies as a result of an accelerated process of the integration of rural and town communities, — devastation of rural structures as a result of investments that did not fit into their historical space arrangements, — disappearance of traditional functions of rural bodies as a result of transformations that were against their nature. Devastation and disappearance of the traditional building is only one of a vast number of phenomena. They were sped up by a bad technical condition of resources and low utility standard. Still, the worst factor was a psychical pressure that regarded old or traditional buildings as an expression of backwardness. Apart from that, building, fire-protection and insurance regulations as well as the so-called orderly campaigns permitted further devastation of wooden constructions. A departure of the wooden village into the past became a real fact. Unfortunately, the old architecture has been replaced by the one that was far from being perfect and by unplanned chaotic location on undeveloped areas. The features of regional identity flowing from tradition, logics of function and place have disappeared. Should the countryside become an area of subculture or, at the best case, a smaller town? When watching the development of the protection of architectural monuments and material rural culture one can notice the evolution of doctrines and practice assosiated with broadly understood notion of “historic monuments”, which in turn leads to comprising both individual structures, their complexes and structural arrangements. Still, this development is not free from controversies, negligence (e.g. in the field of the so-called serial buildings or industrial plants), conflicts or “competence void”. One should also notice that open-air museums represent only a partial solution on an limited museological scale. Attempts have been made to set up “rural reserves” displaying clashes of the countryside with life problems. In this context, the need for a regular development of the countryside with a simultaneous preservance of cultural identity and continuity prompts us to consider the problem of the reinstatement of the countryside as the task, which would mean actions aimed at protecting the cultural landscape in the process of development. This is combined with the integration of the protection of all elements that make up the cultural identity, namely: — factual natural landscape, — settlement structure fixed in the hamlet plan, road network and field expanses, — resources of building substance, greenery and water arrangements, — certain non-material elements affecting characteristics of the cultural picture. Only the countryside seen in that way, in its entire territory, should become a field for the revival, which may be achieved by: — full recording of cultural resources, — their scientific analysis and estimation, — designation of protection zones, — drawing of guidelines for the protection, and — their introduction, as an obligatory element, into plans of spatial development. Hitherto experiences have revealed a need for cooperation between various scientific disciplines, specialists of which are represented in the cultural picture. Prospects for the cooperation of the scientific profession have been opened wide. A separate problem the discussion of which goes beyond the framework of the present report is the saving of spiritual culture, which, from the very beginning, was formed in the sphere of the principles of ideal nature specific for the Polish nation and manifested itself in numerous traits that combine spiritual wefts with a vision of the outside world. Its behaviour should take place not only in the form of popularizing superficial folk forms but also in the shaping of awareness in the educational process and social life.
problemy pejzażu kulturowego wsi pejzaż kulturowy wsi bogactwo panoramy kulturowej ochrona panoramy kulturowej ochrona krajobrazu kulturowego zagrożenia dla przestrzeni kulturowych dewastacja wartości kulturowych kierunki ochrony zabytków wsi problemy rewaloryzacji wsi ochrona wartości kulturowych wsi ratowanie kultury duchowej
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