2015 | 7(43) | 3 | 25-43
Article title

Przywiązanie i osamotnienie w bliskich relacjach

Title variants
Attachment and Loneliness in Close Relationships
Languages of publication
Prezentowany artykuł porusza zagadnienie bliskich związków interpersonalnych w kontekście współczesnej kultury, wyodrębniając z niej dwa charakterystyczne zjawiska istotne dla relacji międzyludzkich: przywiązanie i osamotnienie. Przywiązanie jest opisywane na podstawie teorii J. Bowlby’ego oraz pochodnej od niej teorii stylów przywiązania w relacjach romantycznych C. Hazan i P. Shavera, wyodrębniającej trzy style: bezpieczny, lękowo-ambiwalentny i unikający. Osamotnienie jest rozpatrywane za R. Weissem na dwóch wymiarach: społecznym i emocjonalnym, przy czym aspekt emocjonalny osamotnienia jest kluczowym zjawiskiem w pozabezpiecznych stylach przywiązania. Szeroko przytaczane badania dowodzą, iż bezpieczne style przywiązania ukształtowane w dzieciństwie stanowią podstawowy czynnik warunkujący stabilne i satysfakcjonujące relacje, natomiast style unikający i lękowo-ambiwalentny destabilizują funkcjonowanie związków oraz w konsekwencji doprowadzają do niezadowolenia i osamotnienia partnerów. Najpoważniejszym efektem oddziaływania pozabezpiecznych stylów przywiązania i rosnącego poczucia osamotnienia jest pokoleniowy przekaz wzorców warunkujący nową jakość relacji i więzi międzyludzkich, w których naczelną wartość przyjmuje kultura indywidualizmu oraz nieustanne, nie zawsze satysfakcjonujące wybory.
The article presents the problem of close relationships in the context of contemporary culture, extracting from it two characteristic phenomena relevant to human relationships: attachment and loneliness. Two theories are basic for the article: the Bowlby’s theory of attachment and Hazan and Shaver theory of three attachment styles in romantic relationships: secure, anxiety-ambivalent and avoidant. Loneliness is considered on two dimensions: social and emotional, but the emotional aspect of loneliness is a key phenomenon in unsecure attachment styles. A widely cited study shows that secure attachment styles shaped in childhood are a key determinant of stable and satisfying relationships, while avoiding and anxiety-ambivalent styles destabilize the couples functioning and, consequently, lead to dissatisfaction and loneliness of partners. The most serious impact of unsecure attachment styles and a growing sense of loneliness is generational pattern transmission, which creates the new quality of bonds and relationships. This new quality is the culture of individualism and choices that are constant and not always rewarding.
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