2017 | 1/2017 (65), t.1 | 151 – 163
Article title

Images of Entrepreneurs – Research Results

Title variants
Obrazy przedsiębiorców – wyniki badań własnych
Languages of publication
This paper starts with an introduction to and exploration of entrepreneurship. It further explains the theoretical basis of metaphors used in understanding entrepreneurship with entrepreneurs as the phenomena. This paper takes a new approach to examining the definitions of entrepreneurs, distinguishing between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs. This research gives us insight into understanding the phenomena of entrepreneurship, through the lens of images of entrepreneurs that exist among both entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs. An exploratory analysis of entrepreneurial metaphors and concepts is conducted to achieve this goal. In a qualitative analysis of entrepreneurial concepts, respondents defined the word ‘entrepreneur’ with suggested conceptual equivalents. In an analysis of metaphors, respondents explained why they see entrepreneurs through such lenses. The sample consisted of 124 respondents.
Niniejszy artykuł rozpoczyna się od wprowadzenia oraz eksploracji zjawiska przedsiębiorczości. W dalszej części wyjaśnia podstawy teoretyczne metafory stosowanej w zrozumieniu przedsiębiorczości. Artykuł podejmuje nowe, metaforyczne, a więc kognitywne podejście do zbadania definicji przedsiębiorcy, z rozróżnieniem przedsiębiorców i osób niebędących przedsiębiorcami. To badanie umożliwia wgląd w zrozumienie zjawiska przedsiębiorczości przez pryzmat obrazów, a dokładniej metafor przedsiębiorców, które istnieją zarówno wśród przedsiębiorców, jak i osób niebędących przedsiębiorcami. Aby osiągnąć założony cel, przeprowadzono badanie jakościowe i ilościowe. W badaniu jakościowym respondenci definiowali słowo „przedsiębiorca” za pomocą koncepcyjnych ekwiwalentów i wyjaśniali, dlaczego respondenci używają danych metafor do określenia przedsiębiorców. Badanie ilościowe stanowiła ankieta. Próba składała się ze 124 respondentów.
151 – 163
Physical description
  • University of Social Sciences
  • Alvarez, S.A. and Busenitz, L.W. (2001). The Entrepreneurship of Resource-based Theory. Journal of Management, 27, 755–775.
  • Acs, Z.J. and Audretsch, D.B. (1990). Innovation and Small Firms. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Audretsch, D.B., Castrogiovanni, G.J., Ribeiro, D., and Roig, S. (2005). Linking Entrepreneurship and Management: Welcome to the International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1, 5–7.
  • Barringer, B.R. and Bluedorn, A.C. (1999). The Relationship between Corporate Entrepreneurship and Strategic Management. Strategic Management Journal, 20, 421–444.
  • Brown, T.E., Davidsson, P., and Wiklund, J. (2001). An Operationalization of Stevenson’s Conceptualization of Entrepreneurship as Opportunity-based Firm Behaviour. Strategic Management Journal, 22, 953–968.
  • Bruyat, C. and Julien, P.-A. (2000). Defining the Field of Research in Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 16, 165–180.
  • Busenitz, L.W., West III, G.P., Shepherd, D., Nelson, T., Chandler, G.N., and Zacharakis, A. (2003). Entrepreneurship Research in Emergence: Past Trends and Future Directions. Journal of Management, 29, 285–308.
  • Carland, J.C., Carland, J.W., and Stewart, W.H. (2015). Seeing What’s Not There: The Enigma of Entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 7(1), 1–20.
  • Chmielecki, M. (2013a). Conceptual Negotiation Metaphors across Cultures – Research Findings from Poland, China, The United States and Great Britain. Journal of Intercultural Management, 5(3), 103–118.
  • Chmielecki, M. (2013b). Development of Corporate Entrepreneurship in the Context of Human Resource Management and Organizational Culture in Polish Organizations – Research Results. Przedsiębiorczość i Zarządzanie, XIV(9), 101–116.
  • Chmielecki, M. (2013c). Negotiation Metaphors across Cultures. Organizacja i Zarządzanie, (2).
  • Chmielecki, M. and Sulkowski, L. (2016). Metaphors of Entrepreneurship among Polish Students: Preliminary Research Findings. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 4(4), 141.
  • Coviello, N.E. and Jones, M.V. (2004). Methodological Issues in International Entrepreneurship Research. Journal of Business Venturing, 19, 485–508.
  • Eckhardt, J.T. and Shane, S.A. (2003). Opportunities and Entrepreneurship. Journal of Management, 29, 333–349.
  • Fiet, J.O. (2001). The Pedagogical Side of Entrepreneurship Theory. Journal of Business Venturing, 16, 101–117.
  • Finkle, T.A., Kuratko, D.F., and Goldsby, M.G. (2006). An Examination of Entrepreneurship Centers in the United States: A National Survey. Journal of Small Business Management, 44, 184–206.
  • Flores, L.Y., Robitschek, C., Celebi, E., Andersen, C., and Hoang, U. (2010). Social Cognitive Influences on Mexican Americans’ Career Choices across Holland’s Themes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 198–210.
  • Glinka, B. (2008). Kulturowe uwarunkowania przedsiębiorczości. Warszawa: PWE.
  • Glinka, B. and Gudkova, S. (2011). Przedsiębiorczość. Wolters Kluwer. Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., Camp, S.M., and Sexton, D.L. (2001). Guest Editors’ Introduction to the Special Issue Strategic Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial Strategies for Wealth Creation. Strategic Management Journal, 22, 479–491.
  • Kihlstrom, R.E. and Laffont, J.J. (1979). General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk Aversion. Journal of Political Economy, 87, 719–748.
  • Knight, F. (1921). Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Lee, S.M. and Peterson, S.J. (2000). Culture, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and Global Competitiveness. Journal of World Business, 35, 401–416.
  • Kirzner, I.M. (2015). Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Kuratko, D.F. (2016). Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, and Practice. Cengage Learning.
  • Leibenstein, H. (1979). Branch of Economics is Missing – Micro-Micro Theory. Journal of Economic Literature, 17, 477–502.
  • Leong, F.T.L. (2010). A Cultural Formulation Approach to Career Assessment and Career Counseling: Guest Editor’s Introduction. Journal of Career Development, 37, 375–390.
  • McClelland, D.C. (1961). The Achieving Society. Princeton: Van Nostrand.
  • Miller, D. (1983). The Correlates of Entrepreneurship in Three Types of Firms. Management Science, 29, 770–791.
  • Morgan, G. (1997). Images of Organization. London: Sage.
  • Parker, M. (2012). Alternative Business: Outlaws, Crime and Culture. London: Routledge.
  • Reynolds, P.D. (2005). Understanding Business Creation: Serendipity and Scope in Two Decades of Business Creation Studies. Small Business Economics, 24, 359–364.
  • Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge: HarvardUniversity Press.
  • Schumpeter, J.A. (1942). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper.
  • Shane, S.A. and Venkataraman, S. (2000). The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research. Academy of Management Review, 25, 217–226.
  • Stevenson, H.H. and Jarillo, J.C. (1990). A Paradigm of Entrepreneurship Research: Entrepreneurial Management. Strategic Management Journal, 11, 17–27.
  • Tushman, M.L. and Anderson, P. (1986). Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 439–465.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.