Когнитивных факторы преодоления стресса
Cognitive Factors of Stress Management
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The article provides an insight into the understanding of the role of cognitive factors in stress management. It looks into the influences of cognitive attitude (social constructiveness and cognition flexibility) disorders, conscious and unconscious stress management mechanisms, as well as the ambiguity of the ways in which reflection influences psychic self-regulation, including such phenomenon as alexithymia, which prevents one from realizing one’s own feelings and emotional states. The article shows the connection between the desadaptation processes and professional deformations with the choice of psychological defense mechanisms, strategies of stress coping and reflexivity development among representatives of different professions. The article also mentions the fact that professional deformations among pedagogues may be connected with the manifestation of symptoms of secondary alexithymia, which leads to reduction of their communicative competences. It also stresses the importance to develop reflexivity as the basis for recovery of adequate cognitions followed by a further expanding of the coping strategy arsenal and their use in professional adaptation/disadaptation. The article also looks at the results of original empirical research, which show the differences between the preferred coping strategies and the rates of tension of teachers’ psychological defences which differ in the severity of alexithymia. It also shows the differences in coping strategies and psychological defences depending on the teachers’ record of service. It should be mentioned, that in spite of the long history of study of adaptation processes, there is an obvious deficit of studies, that would take into account the totaluty of personal (dispositional), social, and cognitive factors, as well as the relation of cognitive interpretations and behavioural coping strategies that are typical of an individual. All the above taken into account, it can be said that profilactic and correctional measures can be effective only if certain cognitive deformations of perception are taken into the account and potentially or actally dangerous situation is is evaluated. This leads to the necessity to develop reflexivity as a basis for restoration of adequate cognitions and for further development of the arsenal of coping strategies and flexibility of their use.
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