In the article the role of Slobozhanshchyna scientists in organization of medical museums of higher education institutions in the 19th – early 20th centuries is analyzed. Theauthor uses general theoretical, biographical, chronological, systematic research methods. It is noted that analysis of historical and pedagogical sources and generalization of literature allowed to assert that in the 19th – early 20th cent. the emergence of medical museums in Slobozhanshchyna region, that was controlled by the Russian Empire, was initiated by education institutions (Imperial Kharkov University, Women’s Medical Institute of Kharkiv Medical Society), scientific societies (Kharkiv Medical Society) and the active participation of scientists. Organization of the medical museums of higher education institutions was based on the provisions of the University Charters (1804, 1835, 1863, 1884), the Circulars of Ministry of Education and special instructions that were issued by Universities. The author notes that the Anatomical museum collections were created at the beginning of the formation of medical education at Kharkiv University and Women’s Medical Institute of Kharkiv Medical Society. The article proves that there were such medical museums at Kharkiv University during the action of University charter of 1863 and 1884 years: Museum of Physiological anatomy, Museum of Pathological Anatomy, Museum of Forensic Medicine, Student anatomical Museum, Museum at the University obstetric clinic, Museum of the operative surgery department. It was proved that Slobozhanshchyna scientists had created theoretical and methodological principles of medical museums; involved in practical participation in the establishment, recruitment, organizing museum collections; provided livelihoods museums orientation as medical research and cultural and education institutions. The practical significance of organization of medical museums was to promote the development of national higher education and dissemination of scientific knowledge among the population. Further research is required in the field of investigation of the role of Slobozhanshchyna scientists in the development of Natural orientation museums.