2013 | 7 | 35-61
Article title

Zasłużony najemnik w konstantynopolitańskim więzieniu. Zagadkowa rola Haralda Hardrady w rewolcie 1042 roku

Title variants
A recognised mercenary in the Constantinople prison. A mysterious role of Harald Hardrada in the revolt as of 1042
Languages of publication
Harold Hardrada (about 1015-1066), the king of Norvay, earlier the commander of Scandinavian mercenaries fighting for Prince of Rus Yaroslav the Wise as well as for the Bizantine emperors (there as akoluthos - the commander of Varangian Guard) is a character whose hitory still raises doubts and leaves a lot of unanswered queries. It is due to all these inaccuracies of Scandinavian sources (mainly "Heimskringla", "Fagrskinny" and "Morkinskinny") as well as the absence of information concerning his deeds in the Rus and Bizantine's sources (the only one who briefly mentions Harald is Kekaumenos, the author of the Advice for the Emperor). The greatest number of question appear while considering the participation of Harald in a revolt against the Emperor Michael V, which took place in Constantinople in 1042. By confronting Synopsis of Histories by John Skylitzes, The Chronicle by Michael Psellos with Scandinavian sources, one may conclude that Harald as the head of some Varangians supported the rebels and took activie part in the Emperor's overthrow. Nevertheless, this hypothesis is blurred ny an essay written by Kekaumenos who knew Harald (not necessarily in person) and who does not mention any role of Harald at the times of these riots. Another vagueness concerns a short stay of Harald in prison. The Scandinavian sources claim that he was placed there by the successor of Michael V - Constantice IX. However, there is a justified hypothesis that it was Michael who arrested Harald on the charge of fraud of the Emperor's wealth, even though if the hypothesis seem incerect having analysed it deeply. Harald was probably preventively imprisoned by Constantine who urged to prevent possible cooperation of Harald and Yaroslav the Wise who planned to attack Constaninople.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
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