2013 | 22/2 | 41-58
Article title

The Fates of OE *Durran, Etc in Middle English: A Study in Word Geography

Title variants
Languages of publication
OE *durran ‘dare’ is a preterite-present verb and one of six such verbs whose various forms have survived into Modern English. The main feature of the members of the group is that their strong past tense acquired a present meaning, and thus a new weak past tense developed over time. An outline of other characteristic features of these verbs is included in section ‘0’ (introductory remarks), yet the aim of the present paper is to establish the distribution of the verb *durran in Middle English with regard to periods and regions, also considering differences in spelling. Also, the paper examines fixed expressions such as how dare you or I dare say. The Middle English data are derived from the Prose corpus of the Innsbruck computer archive of machine-readable English texts. Additional sources, like the Dictionary of Old English on CD-ROM, the electronic Middle English dictionary and the Oxford English dictionary online are also referred to.
  • University of Warsaw
  • Beths, Frank. 1999. “The history of dare and the status of unidirectionality”. Linguistics 37: 1069–1110.
  • Cameron, Angus et al. 2003. The dictionary of Old English in electronic form A-G (CD-ROM). Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, University of Toronto.
  • Fischer, Olga. 1992. “Syntax”. In: Norman Blake (ed.) The Cambridge history of the English language. Vol. 2: 1066–1476. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 207–408.
  • Fischer, Olga. 2007. Morphosyntactic change: functional and formal perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Markus, Manfred et al (ed.). 1999. Innsbruck computer archive of machine-readable English texts. (CD-ROM version). Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck.
  • McSparran, Frances et al. (eds.). 2001. The Middle English dictionary (part of The Middle English compendium). Ann Arbor: Humanities Text Initiative, University of Michigan.
  • Mitchell, Bruce and Fred C. Robinson. 2007. A guide to Old English (7th edition). Oxford: Blackwell.
  • The Oxford English dictionary online. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Quirk, Randolph and Charles Leslie Wrenn. 1955. An Old English grammar. (Methuen’s Old English Library). London: Methuen & Co Ltd.
  • Venezky, Richard L. and Sharon Butler. 1980. A microfiche concordance to Old English. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies.
  • Visser, F. Th. 1963–1973. An historical syntax of the English language. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.