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2018 | 66 | 9: Sinologia | 121-138
Article title

Najdawniejsze zapożyczenia chińskie w językach tocharskich

Title variants
EN
The Oldest Chinese Loanwords in the Tocharian Languages
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
Tocharian tribes—of Indo-European origin—settled along the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now 新疆 Xinjiang, China) around 2000 BC. Living on the ancient trade route leading from China to Europe, they controlled an important section of the Silk Road, running along the Taklamakan Desert (塔克拉玛干沙漠) for about three millennia. The Tocharians were the first Indo-Europeans who came into contact with a Sino-Tibetan population, in particular—with Chinese tribes. The author analyses the oldest Chinese borrowings which entered the two Tocharian languages in the Old Chinese period (1000–200 BC), as well as in the epoch of the Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) and in the Early Middle Chinese period (ca. 600 AD). The Tocharians adopted various achievements of Old Chinese civilization, e.g. the terms for ‘rice’ (Toch. AB klu ← OCh. 稻), ‘brandy’ (Toch. B śak(u)se ← OCh. 粟酒), ‘lamp’ (Toch. AB cok ← EMCh. 燭), ‘pot’ (Toch. B lwāke ← OCh. 陶壶), or ‘abacus’ (Toch. B ṣipāṅkiñc ← EMCh. 數盤工句). They also took over Chinese names of measures and units that proved useful in trade, e.g. Toch. B cāk ‘hundred quarts’ (← OCh. 石), Toch. B cāne* ‘cash’ (← OCh. 錢), Toch. B tau ‘ten quarts’ (← EMCh. 斗), Toch. B ṣaṅk ‘a measure of volume’ (← EMCh. 升). The term for a larger settlement (Toch. A ri, B riye ‘town, city’ ← OCh. 里 ‘village, community’) was also borrowed in the Old Chinese era, as was the name of the last month of the year (Toch. B *rāp ← OCh. 臘). In the early phase of the Middle Chinese period, Tocharian tribes also borrowed the Chinese name of a beautifully-colored exotic bird (Toch. A yāmutsi, B yāmuttsi ‘a kind of waterfowl’ ← EMCh. 鸚鵡子 ‘parrot’).
PL
W artykule zostały omówione najstarsze zapożyczenia chińskie, które trafiły do języków tocharskich w epoce starochińskiej i we wczesnej epoce średniochińskiej. Tocharowie po osiedleniu się w Kotlinie Tarymskiej na pradawnym szlaku handlowym, prowadzącym z Chin do Europy, zaadaptowali różne zdobycze starożytnej chińskiej cywilizacji, m.in. nazwę ‘ryżu’ (toch. AB klu ← stchiń. 稻), ‘wódki zbożowej’ (toch. B śak(u)se ← stchiń. 粟酒), ‘lampy’ (toch. AB cok ← stchiń. 燭), ‘naczynia glinianego’ (toch. B lwāke ← stchiń. 陶壶), ‘liczydła’ (toch. B ṣipāṅkiñc ← śrchiń. 數盤工句). Plemiona tocharskie przejęły także chińskie nazwy miar i jednostek, które okazały się użyteczne w handlu, np. toch. B cāk ‘sto funtów’ (← stchiń. 石), toch. B cāne* ‘jakaś jednostka monetarna’ (← stchiń. 錢), toch. B tau ‘dziesięć kwart’ (← śrchiń. 斗), toch. B ṣaṅk ‘litr’ (← śrchiń. 升). W dobie starochińskiej zapożyczono także nazwę większej osady (toch. A ri, B riye ‘miasto’ ← stchiń. 里 ‘wieś, wspólnota’) oraz nazwę ostatniego miesiąca roku (toch. B *rāp adi. ← stchiń. 臘). Nieco później do języków tocharskich trafiła także nazwa egzotycznego ptaka o ładnym ubarwieniu (toch. A yāmutsi, B yāmuttsi ‘flaming’ ← śrchiń. 鸚鵡子 ‘papuga’).
Contributors
References
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Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
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bwmeta1.element.desklight-817a7d5e-5e70-4117-81aa-4719a3bc5acc
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