ОСОБЛИВОСТІ ВИКЛАДАННЯ СУСПІЛЬНО-ІСТОРИЧНОГО МАТЕРІАЛУ РОЗУМОВО ВІДСТАЛИМ УЧНЯМ У 20-Х – НА ПОЧАТКУ 30-Х РОКІВ ХХ СТОЛІТТЯ
Peculiarities of teaching mentally retarded students social-historical material in 20 – early 30 of XX century
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Since 1918 the Soviet authorities organized for mentally retarded children special schools. The new government abolished history as an independent course from the list of courses of school education. History replace various school subjects such as «Knowledge about the country», «Social Science», «Knowledge about the life», «Ethnology». Under the new program children were taught the laws of socialist revolution and the Soviet system, formed an idea of the historical process as a history of the people, their hard work and struggle for a better life. At this time in a special school actively implemented elements of social and political education of mentally retarded children by involving them for a revolutionary celebrations and meetings with participants of revolution and participants of the events of the Civil War. Much attention is paid to correction schools study regional history as the basis for development of students’ patriotism and love for their land and homeland. Mentally retarded children organized tours and meetings with various professions, which introduced a production process of local enterprises, equipment, terrain and its natural resources and more. Studying the problem of teaching methods of social and historical material in the special school, its hould benoted that in the 20th of the last century teachers practically did not consider individual cognitive capabilities of each child. In 1925 were introduced the new comprehensive training programs. Teaching material was composed of studies about their native land and was associated with seasonal pictures of nature and work of the people at that time.There has been introdeced some historical information for a better understanding of our children. The leading methods of work in this period were: visual method, labor, sightseeing, independent work and dramatization method. During the 20 – early 30 of XX century specials chools gradually become like the rest of the schools, and its specific function – to overcome the failure of children with mental retardation was partially destroyed. In 1932, special school becomes seven-year. Among the list were school courses and social sciences. According to the People's Commissariat of Education, a program of social sciences should contribute actively to the raise of the overall level of mentally retarded children, strengthen political awareness of mentally retarded children prepare children for feasible participation in the construction of a socialist society. The content of the course «Social Science» offered children to study such questions as the origin of man, primitive communism, the development of the family. Great difficulties in the assimilation of social science have been linked to the lack of textbooks. Thus, in the first years of Soviet power was not the only way the problem of teaching mentally retarded students history. Programs and textbooks that were used until 1917, were canceled, and the course of history was reorganized and integrated with other training courses.
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