The aim of the article is to determine the modern approaches to the professional training of future primary school teachers in scientific works of researchers at the modern stage. Methodological foundations of the research are thesis of the cognitive theory about the dialectical interconnection and interdependence of phenomena, social determination and the creative essence of a person. Theoretical and practical significance of the research is in the illumination of the essence of such important notions as «fundamentalization» and «modernization» of the professional training of future primary school teachers. Examined experience let us determine the conditions of professional training modernization in the conditions of higher school. Modernization of pedagogical practice is an important condition, which provides effective professional training of a future primary school teacher. It exists according to three models: pedagogical practice gets a subordinate part; the students master only the methodical devices during the practice; a student masters analytical pedagogy and methodical devices. Analyzing pedagogical higher school experience of the professional training of future primary school teachers in different countries, we can distinguish the following tendencies in improving the students study: psychological, pedagogical and sociological orientation of pedagogical education content; future teacher’s practical preparation for communication basing on the trainings; pedagogical practice reformation; using of practically oriented studying forms: microteaching, studying situations modeling, analysis of a lesson’s video fragments, school and laboratory practical work; using of informative technologies; promotion of the significance of the students’ self-dependent training. Examined experience of elementary school teachers’ training let us distinguish such conditions of modernization of primary school teacher’s professional training in the system of pedagogical education. Among them they are: cultivate of the theoretical primary school teachers’ activity models of a new type; determination of pedagogical conditions, which are the foundation of the effective educational process reformation; mobility and variety of the student’s choice as for the level of the professional qualification, additional specialties, specializations which will provide the formation of the individual educational strategy.