2016 | 2 | 125-143
Article title

Supporting start-ups – comparison of chosen aspects between Poland and Sweden

Title variants
Languages of publication
According to the OECD, the city of Malmö is ranked on the fourth position globally in patent applications per 10,000 inhabitants. Presenting this ranking list, Forbes magazine described Malmö as young and diverse. The two other largest Swedish cities, Stockholm and Gothenburg, also scored high – on the 8th and 12th places, respectively. Regarding the presented facts the main aim of the article is to describe both Polish and Swedish systems of supporting new business, crucial from the innovation-creation perspective. These two countries were chosen basing on the fact, that Sweden is one of the most innovative countries globally and it’s start-up supporting system could be an inspiring benchmark for Poland, which is a maternity country for the authoress. Both parts are based on the authoress’ observations as well as direct talks with entrepreneurs and start-up supporting organizations. As an added value of this comparison, the concluding part of the article presents a list of best practices and suggestions for Polish start-ups.
Physical description
  • Almi Invest website, [23.05.2016]
  • An online resource to help to start or expand a business abroad, [05.05.2016]
  • Birch D. (1987), Job creation in America: How our smallest companies put the most people to work, Free Press. New York.
  • Blank S. (2013), Why the lean start-up changes everything, “Harvard Business Review”, May, p. 4.
  • Boguszewski, P. (2015), Globalny raport konkurencyjności 2015-16 Światowego Forum Gospodarczego (Global Competitiveness Report 2015-16 the World Economic Forum), National Bank of Poland, Warsaw.
  • Commission opens public consultation on double taxation problems in the EU (2010), IP/10/469 Compendium for investors, [23.05.2016]
  • Cornell University, INSEAD, and WIPO (2015), The Global Innovation Index 2015: Effective innovation policies for development, Fontainebleau, Ithaca and Geneva.
  • Cumming D., Johan S. (2009), Venture capital and private equity contracting: An international perspective, Elsevier Science Academic Press.
  • Da Rin M., Hellmann T., Puri M. (2013), A survey of venture capital research, in: Handbook of the Economics of Finance 2(A), ed. Constantinides G., Harris M., Stulz R., North Holland, Amsterdam.
  • Foster, L., Haltiwanger J., Krizan C. J. (2006), Market selection, reallocation, and restructuring in the US retail trade sector in the 1990’s, “Review of Economics and Statistics”, vol. 88 no. 4, pp. 748-58.
  • Hall B., Lerner J. (2010), The financing of R&D and innovation, in: Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, ed. Hall B., Rosenberg N., Elsevier, Netherlands, pp. 609-639.
  • Haltiwanger J., Jarmin R., Miranda J. (2013)., Who creates jobs? Small versus large versus young, “Review of Economics and Statistics”, vol. 95 no. 2, pp. 347-361.
  • Handbook on JEREMIE Holding Fund Operational Procedures, [06. 2016]
  • Kerr W. R., Nanda R. (2014), Financing innovation, Working Paper 15-034, November 5, Harvard Business School.
  • Kollman T., Stockmann Ch., Lindstaed J., Kennsbock J. (2015), European start-up monitor, German start-up association, Berlin.
  • Laderman L., Leduc S. (2014), Slow business start-ups and the job recovery, FRBSF Economic Letter, 2014-20, July 7, 2014.
  • Mason C., Brown R, Entrepreneurial ecosystems and growth oriented entrepreneurship, Background paper prepared for the workshop organized by the OECD LEED Programme and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs on The Hague, Netherlands, 7th November 2013.
  •, serwis PAP poświęcony polskiej nauce (, Polish Science Portal), [26.05.2016]
  • Neumark D., Brandon W., Zhang J. (2011), Do small businesses create more jobs? New evidence for the United States from the national establishment time series, “Review of Economics and Statistics” vol. 93 no.1, pp. 16–29.
  • Przewodnik po rynku Królestwa Szwecji (A Guide of the market the Kingdom of Sweden) (2012), report of Polish Chamber of Commerce, Warsaw.
  • Ries E. (2012), The lean start-up. How today's entrepreneurs use continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses, Crown Publishing Group, Division of Random House Inc.
  • Skala, A., Kruczkowska, E., Olczak, M.A. (2015), Polskie start-upy. Raport (Polish Start-ups. Report) 2015, Start-up Poland.
  • Startup Commons Global website, [05.07.2016]
  • Startup Platforms, [04.06.2016]
  • Statistical office of the European Union, which provides the European Union with statistics at European level that enable comparisons between countries and regions., [25.05.2016]
  • Sweden’s innovation agency website, [23.05.2016]
  • Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, [23.05.2016]
  • Swedish Bankers Association, [23.05.2016]
  • Tataj D. (2014), Poland: Emerging innovation leader of the Visegrad Group, CEED Institute, Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, November 2014.
  • Tech start-ups Special Report (2014), A Cambrian moment, The Economist, 18th January 2014, published online:
  • The Global Start-up Ecosystem Ranking 2015 (2015), Compass.
  • The Knowledge Foundation (KK-Stiftelsen) website, [23.05.2016]
  • The Swedish Innovation Strategy (2015), Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications, Sweden.
  • World Economic Forum, Competitiveness Rankings,
  • 2015-2016/competitiveness-rankings/ [04.06.2016]
Document Type
Publication order reference
2353 - 9119
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.