Prawna ochrona XX-wiecznych układów urbanistycznych na przykładzie Gdyni
Legal protection of 20th-century urban layouts on the example of Gdynia
Modernizm w Europie – modernizm w Gdyni
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In 2007, the urban layout of the city centre of Gdynia, shaped and built in the 1920s and 1930s, was entered into the register of monuments of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. The area concerned covers about 91 hectares, i.e. more than 0.9 square km. The entire area is very densely built-up. There are about 450 different buildings, most of which are five- to six-storey tenement houses. The area includes 24 complexes and buildings entered into the register of monuments, on the basis of separate decisions. It is therefore an area of the greatest concentration of significant architectural works in Gdynia. Including the city centre layout in the register has inspired numerous activities related to this unique – still rather young and very extensive – historic area. The Gdynia Commune has taken up works on creating and implementing local development plans for the entire area. Conservation decisions and arrangements in development plans are prepared in cooperation with planners, monument conservators, residents and users, among others. Such plans include detailed and precise regulations concerning spatial issues, such as the height and type of new developments, as well as the protection of and possible changes to the existing buildings. The plans also contain a division of the preserved houses into groups of different historic value and the scope of protection is dependent on this value. In accordance with international trends, the protection also covers some valuable buildings from the 1960s and 1970s. The regulations of the development plans constitute the local law – they are enacted by the City Council and are accessible to all interested parties. By the end of 2011, around 95% of the historical area will be included in the local development plans. After including the layout of the city centre in the register of monuments, a funding system for conservation works has also been introduced for all the buildings in the area that were built before 1989. Every year, more than 1 million PLN is allocated for this purpose from the City of Gdynia’s budget. The funding may cover 30% to 75% of renovation costs, depending on the building’s historical value. In the last 3 years, owners of about 30 buildings, mainly private tenement houses, have taken advantage of the funding scheme. Public financial support for the works enables better control and provides a broader scope of possibilities of restoring historic solutions or using more complicated technologies. It also creates a good basis for communication and long-term cooperation with monument owners. The inclusion of the city centre of Gdynia in the register of historical monuments has also been a symbolic recognition and an official acknowledgement of the cultural value of this part of the city. Many people have found a new interest in modernism and the history of Gdynia, and the unique architecture of the 1930s has gained more enthusiasts. The City of Gdynia widely implements research and popularising works related to modernist architecture. In the scientific and conservation circles, academic conferences under the theme of “Modernism in Europe – Modernism in Gdynia” have become well-known. They were held in 2007 and 2009, and the next one will take place in September of 2012. Apart from events for specialists, open mass events dedicated to getting to know and visiting the city’s monuments have been taking place since 2010. Each of them has attracted hundreds of people. The tourist Trail of Modernism of Gdynia, where people can buy folders and souvenirs related to modernism, has been functioning for almost a year. Activities related to the protection and conservation of modernist Gdynia have aroused interest throughout the country and have provoked positive comments also among international specialists. In the German newspaper, Der Tagesspiegel, Berlin columnist Thomas Flierl published an article on the history of Gdynia and discovering the city’s value in contemporary times, as well as the protection of the city centre. German monuments conservator, Professor Jörg Haspel, has suggested that Gdynia should apply for inclusion in the Heritage Label list that is being created by the Council of Europe.
- dr inż., architekt, adiunkt w Katedrze Teorii, Historii Architektury i Konserwacji Zabytków Wydziału Architektury Politechniki Gdańskiej. Od 2000 r. pełni funkcję Miejskiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Gdyni.
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