PL EN


Journal
2018 | 2 (71) | 113-125
Article title

Sources of Funding and Revenues of Social Enterprises in Poland in Comparison to Selected European Countries and World-Wide

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
The fundamental ideas and values of the social economy find their expression in the goals of social enterprises and in the ways of their activity. However, they are not the only determinants of their social activity. Diversified financial resources are also necessary to stimulate the creation and development of these enterprises. The objective of the paper is to indicate to what extent social enterprises in Poland use various sources of funding their activity, compared to chosen European countries and world-wide. The analyses were carried out on the basis of data from international SEFORIS reports, covering 1000 social enterprises in Hungary, Romania, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Sweden, Great Britain, Russia and China and a sample of 412 Polish social enterprises. The findings of analyses indicate that revenues from business activity are significant financial source of social enterprises in many European countries, including Poland. However, they are not the only way to gain capital. Among other forms of capital contribution, subsidies, donations or membership fees can be singled out. The share of social enterprises using those sources significantly varies in individual countries.
Journal
Year
Issue
Pages
113-125
Physical description
Dates
published
2018-09-13
Contributors
  • Poznan University of Economics and Business
References
  • Billis, D. (Ed.). (2010). Hybrid organizations and the third sector: Challenges for practice, theory and policy. Hamshire, TX: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Brandstetter, L., Lehner, O. M. (2014). Impact Investment Portfolios: Including Social Risks and Returns, ACRN, Oxford Publishing House, Oxford UK.
  • Carroll, D. A., Stater, K. J. (2009). Revenue diversification in nonprofit organizations: does it lead to financial stability? Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 19(4), 947-966.
  • Chang, C. F., Tuckman, H. P. (1994). Revenue diversification among nonprofits. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 5(3), 273-290.
  • Dart, R. (2004a). Being "business-like" in a nonprofit organization: A grounded and inductive typology, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33, 290-310.
  • Dart, R. (2004b). The legitimacy of social enterprise, Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 14, 411-424.
  • Dees, J. G. (1998). Enterprising nonprofits, Harvard business review, 76, 54-69.
  • Defourny J., Nyssens M., 2007, Defining social enterprise, Social enterprise: At the crossroads of market, public policies and civil society, no. 3.
  • Eikenberry, A. M., Kluver, J. D. (2004). The marketization of the nonprofit sector: Civil society at risk?, Public administration review, 64(2), 132-140.
  • Enjolras, B. (2002). The commercialization of voluntary sport organizations in Norway. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 31(3), 352-376.
  • Evers, A. (2005). Mixed welfare systems and hybrid organizations: Changes in the governance and provision of social services. International Journal of Public Administration, 28, 736-748.
  • Evers, A., Rauch, U., & Stitz, U. (2002). Von öffentlichen Einrichtungen zu sozialen Unternehmen [From public services to social enterprises]. Berlin, Germany: Sigma.
  • Foster, W., Bradach, J. (2005). Should nonprofits seek profits? Harvard Business Review, 92-100.
  • Frankfort-Nachmias, Ch., Nachmias, D. (2001). Metody badawcze w naukach społecznych, Wydawnictwo Zysk i S-ka, Wydanie I, Poznań.
  • Froelich, K.A. (1999). Diversification of revenue strategies: Evolving resource dependence in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 28(3), 246-268.
  • Frumkin, P., Keating, E. K. (2011). Diversification reconsidered: The risks and rewards of revenue concentration. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 2(2), 151-164.
  • Geobey S., Weber O. (2013). Lessons in operationalizing social finance: the case of Vancouver City Savings Credit Union, Journal of Sustainable Finance & Investment, 3(2).
  • Grassl W., 2012, Hybrid Forms of Business: The Logic of Gift in the Commercial World, Journal of Business Ethics, no.104.
  • Grohs, S., Schneiders, K., & Heinze, R. G. (2015). Social Entrepreneurship Versus Intrapreneurship in the German Social Welfare State: A Study of Old-Age Care and Youth Welfare Services. Nonprofit and voluntary sector quarterly, 44(1), 163-180.
  • Hager, M. (2001). Financial vulnerability among arts organizations: A test of the Tuckman-Chang measures. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 30(2), 376-392.
  • http://fakty.ngo.pl/files/wiadomosci.ngo.pl/public/civicpedia/KondycjaNGO2015.pdf, s. 230, [dostęp: 20 marzec 2017].
  • Juraszek-Kopacz B., Sienicka A., Zagrodzka T. (2008). „Ekonomizacja organizacji pozarządowych – wyzwania i szanse okiem praktyków, Ekonomia Społeczna Teksty, 10.
  • Keating, E., Fischer, M., Gordon, T., Greenlee, J. (2005). Assessing financial vulnerability in the nonprofit sector. Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations, Harvard University Working Paper.
  • Kerlin, J. A., Pollak, T. (2006). Nonprofit commercial revenue: A replacement for declining government grants and private contributions? Paper presented at the Third Annual, United Kingdom Social Enterprise Research Conference, London.
  • King, S. (2006). Pink ribbons, inc.: Breast cancer and the politics of philanthropy, Minneapolis University of Minnesota Press, Kingdom Social Enterprise Research Conference, London.
  • Maier, F., Meyer, M., Steinbereithner, M. (2016). Nonprofit Organizations Becoming Business-Like A Systematic Review, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(1), 64-86.
  • Mikołajczak, P., (2017a). Importance of funding sources to the scale of activity of social enterprises, Finanse, Rynki Finansowe, Ubezpieczenia, 4/88.
  • Mikołajczak, P., (2017b). Źródła i instrumenty finansowego wsparcia przedsiębiorstw społecznych, Wydawnictwo UEP, Poznań.
  • Mikołajczak, P., Czternasty, W. (2015). Wspieranie rozwoju przedsiębiorstw ekonomii społecznej w Polsce przez fundusze europejskie, Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego, Ekonomiczne Problemy Usług, Uwarunkowania rynkowe rozwoju mikro, małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw, Mikrofirma 2015, 420-432.
  • O’Donohoe, N., Leijonhufvud, C., Saltuk, Y., Bugg-Levine, A., Brandenburg, M. (2010). Impact Investments: An emerging asset class, Morgan Global Research, London.
  • Schimanek, T., (2015). Finansowanie przedsiębiorstw społecznych w Polsce, Ekonomia Społeczna, 2, 7-20.
  • Simpson, M., Cheney, G. (2007). Marketization, participation, and communication within New Zealand retirement villages: A critical-rhetorical and discursive analysis, Discourse & Communication, 1, 191 222.
  • Wygnański, J., (2008). Ekonomizacja organizacji posarządowych, Zarządzanie Publiczne, 1(3), 23-67.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-8daf2981-fe66-46ac-92ce-adff5fbae35f
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.