Polska i Finlandia w Imperium Rosyjskim: różne drogi do niepodległości w XIX i na początku XX wieku
Poland and Finland in the Russian Empire: Different roads to independence in the 19th and early 20th century
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The author of the article focuses on the differences between the Finnish and Polish roads to independence in the 19th and early 20th century. He points to the differences in the policyof the tsarist authorities with regard to the autonomy of the Kingdom of Poland and that of the Grand Duchy of Finland. He distinguishes and discusses three distinctive periods in the pursuit of this policy: 1809–1831, then 1832–1863 and, finally, the period of the biggest differences, 1863–1905. The late 19th century saw the tsarist authorities adopting a stricter policy aiming to restrict Finnish autonomy, which encouraged the Finnish elites to seek independence from Russia.
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