PL EN


2017 | 4(964) | 5-25
Article title

What Do We Know about the Effects of Diversity Management? A Meta-analysis

Authors
Title variants
PL
Co wiemy o efektach zarządzania różnorodnością? Metaanaliza dotychczasowych badań
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
The purpose of this paper is to synthesise the literature on the relationship between diversity management and the main organisational and team outcomes (organisational performance, job performance, organisational commitment and turnover). The author conducts a meta-analysis of the relationship between diversity management and organisational and team outcomes using a sample of 17 studies and 29 different correlations. The results show significant overall relationships between diversity management and organisational performance (zr = 0.27, p < 0.05), job performance (zr = 0.16, p < 0.01) organisational commitment (zr = 0.30, p < 0.01) and turnover (zr = –0.43, p < 0.01). The article extends previous research by quantitatively reviewing the relationship between diversity management and organisational and team outcomes. It shows that diversity management has the potential to increase organisational and employee performance and job attitudes. Implications of research done to date for future analyses are discussed and recommendations are made.
PL
Celem artykułu jest analiza dotychczasowych badań nad związkami pomiędzy zarządzaniem różnorodnością a głównymi efektami organizacyjnymi i zespołowymi (wynikami organizacji, wynikami pracy, zaangażowaniem i odejściami pracowników). Przeprowadzono metaanalizę związków pomiędzy zarządzaniem a efektami funkcjonowania organizacji i wynikami pracy jednostek na podstawie przeglądu 17 niezależnych badań i analizy 29 niezależnych związków korelacyjnych. Zaprezentowane wyniki dowodzą, że zarzadzanie różnorodnością koreluje z ogólnymi wynikami organizacji (zr = 0,27; p < 0,05), wynikami pracy jednostek (zr = 0,16; p < 0,01), zaangażowaniem (zr = 0,30; p < 0,01) i odejściami z pracy (zr = –0,43; p < 0,01). Artykuł rozszerza dotychczasową wiedzę w zakresie ilościowej charakterystyki efektów zarzadzania różnorodnością. Wykazano, że zmienna ta może być czynnikiem decydującym o wynikach funkcjonowania organizacji oraz pracy i postaw jednostek. Przedstawiono również wnioski z dotychczasowych badań i sformułowano rekomendacje dla przyszłych analiz.
Contributors
author
  • Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie, Instytut Przedsiębiorstwa, Zakład Otoczenia Biznesu, al. Niepodległości 162, 02-554 Warszawa, Poland, dturek@sgh.waw.pl
References
  • Aguinis H. (2013), Performance Management, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
  • Ardakani M. S., Abzari M., Shaemi A., Fathi S. (2016), Diversity Management and Human Resources Productivity: Mediating Effects of Perceived Organizational Attractiveness, Organizational Justice and Social Identity in Isfahan’s Steel Industry, “Iranian Journal of Management Studies”, vol. 9, no 2.
  • Armstrong C., Flood P. C., Guthrie J. P., Liu W., MacCurtain S., Mkamwa T. (2010), The Impact of Diversity and Equality Management on Firm Performance: Beyond High Performance Work Systems, “Human Resources Management”, vol. 49, no 6, https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20391.
  • Ashikali T., Groeneveld S. (2015), Diversity Management for All? An Empirical Analysis of Diversity Management Outcomes across Groups, “Personnel Review”, vol. 44, no 5, https://doi.org/10.1108/pr-10-2014-0216.
  • Bell S. T., Villado A. J., Lukasik M. A., Belau L., Briggs A. L. (2011), Getting Specific about Demographic Diversity Variable and Team Performance Relationships: A Meta-analysis, “Journal of Management”, vol. 37, no 3, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310365001.
  • Bieling G., Stock R. M., Dorozalla F. (2015), Coping with Demographic Change in Job Markets: How Age Diversity Management Contributes to Organizational Performance, “Zeitschrift für Personalforschung”, vol. 29, no 1, https://doi.org/10.1177/239700221502900101.
  • Blau P. (1964), Exchange and Power in Social Life, Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • Bleijenbergh I., Peters P., Poutsma E. (2010), Diversity Management Beyond the Business Case, “Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal”, vol. 29, no 5, https://doi.org/10.1108/02610151011052744.
  • Borenstein M., Hedges L. V., Higgins J. P. T., Rothstein H. R. (2009), Introduction to Meta-analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester.
  • Bowen D. E., Ostroff C. (2004), Understanding HRM-firm Performance Linkages: The Role of the ‘Strength’ of the HRM System, “Academy of Management Review”, vol. 29, no 2, https://doi.org/10.2307/20159029.
  • Choi S., Rainey H. G. (2010), Managing Diversity in U.S. Federal Agencies: Effects of Diversity and Diversity Management on Employee Perceptions of Organizational Performance, “Public Administration Review”, vol. 70, no 1, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2009.02115.x.
  • Cox T. H., Blake S. (1991), Managing Cultural Diversity: Implications for Organizational Competitiveness, “Executive”, vol. 5, no 3, https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.1991.4274465.
  • Cropanzano R., Bowen D. E., Gilliland S. W. (2007), The Management of Organizational Justice, “Academy of Management Perspectives”, vol. 21, no 4, https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2007.27895338.
  • Field A. P. (2001), Meta-analysis of Correlation Coefficients: A Monte Carlo Comparison of Fixed- and Random-effect Methods, “Psychological Methods”, vol. 6, no 2, https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989x.6.2.161.
  • Fujimoto Y., Hartel Ch. E. J., Azmat F. (2013), Towards a Diversity Justice Management Model: Integrating Organizational Justice and Diversity Management, “Social Responsibility Journal”, vol. 9, no 1, https://doi.org/10.1108/17471111311307877.
  • Gilbert J. A., Stead B. A., Ivancevich J. M. (1999), Diversity Management: A New Organizational Paradigm, “Journal of Business Ethics”, vol. 21, no 1.
  • Horwitz S. K., Horwitz I. B. (2007), The Effects of Team Diversity on Team Outcomes: A Meta-analytic Review of Team Demography, “Journal of Management”, vol. 33, no 6, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206307308587.
  • Huselid M. A. (1995), The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Turnover, Productivity, and Corporate Financial Performance, “Academy of Management Journal”, vol. 38, no 3, https://doi.org/10.2307/256741.
  • Ivancevich J. M., Gilbert J. A. (2000), Diversity Management: Time for a New Approach, “Public Personnel Management”, vol. 29, no 1, https://doi.org/10.1177/009102600002900106.
  • Iyengar S., Greenhouse J. B. (1988), Selection Models and the File Drawer Problem, “Statistical Science”, vol. 3, no 1, https://doi.org/10.1214/ss/117701301.
  • Jabbour Ch. J. Ch., Gordono F. S., Caldeira de Oliveira J. H., Martinez J. C., Gomes Battistelle R. A. (2011), Diversity Management: Challenges, Benefits, and the Role of Human Resource Management in Brazilian Organizations, “Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal”, vol. 30, no 1, https://doi.org/10.1108/02610151111110072.
  • Jayne M. E. A., Dipboye R. L. (2004), Leveraging Diversity to Improve Business Performance: Research Findings and Recommendations for Organizations, “Human Resource Management”, vol. 43, no 4, https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20033.
  • Joshi A., Roh H. (2009), The Role of Context in Work Team Diversity Research: A Meta-analytic Review, “Academy of Management Journal”, vol. 52, no 3, https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2009.41331491.
  • Kalinoski Z. T., Steele-Johnson D., Peyton E. J., Leas K. A., Steinke J., Bowling N. A. (2013), A Meta-analytic Evaluation of Diversity Training Outcomes, “Journal of Organizational Behavior”, vol. 34, no 8, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1839.
  • Kellough J. E., Naff K. C. (2004), Responding to a Wake-up Call: An Examination of Federal Agency Diversity Management Programs, “Administration & Society”, vol. 36, no 1, https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399703257269.
  • Kim H. K., Lee U. H., Kim Y. H. (2015), The Effect of Workplace Diversity Management in a Highly Male-dominated Culture, “Career Development International”, vol. 20, no 3, https://doi.org/10.1108/cdi-06-2014-0082.
  • Konrad A. M., Yang Y., Maurer C. C. (2016), Antecedents and Outcomes of Diversity and Equality Management Systems: An Integrated Institutional Agency and Strategic Human Resource Management Approach, “Human Resource Management”, vol. 55, no 1, https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21713.
  • Kundu S. C., Mor A. (2016), Effect of Diversity Management on Employees’ Organisational Commitment: A Study of Indian Organisations, “Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management”, vol. 5, no 1, https://doi.org/10.21863/jshrm/2016.5.1.021.
  • Kundu S. C., Mor A. (2017), Workforce Diversity and Organizational Performance: A Study of IT Industry in India, “Employee Relations: The International Journal”, vol. 39, no 2, https://doi.org/10.1108/er-06-2015-0114.
  • Meyer J. P., Allen N. J. (1991), A Three-component Conceptualization of Organizational Commitment, “Human Resources Management Review”, vol. 1, no 1, https://doi.org/10.1016/1053-4822(91)90011-z.
  • Motowidlo S. J., Van Scotter J. R. (1994), Evidence That Task-performance Should Be Distinguished from Contextual Performance, “Journal of Applied Psychology”, vol. 79, no 4, https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.79.4.475.
  • Ordu A. (2016), The Effects of Diversity Management on Job Satisfaction and Individual Performance of Teachers, “Educational Research and Reviews”, vol. 11, no 3, https://doi.org/10.5897/err2015.2573.
  • Pitts D. (2009), Diversity Management, Job Satisfaction, and Performance: Evidence from US Federal Agencies, “Public Administration Review”, vol. 69, no 2, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2008.01977.x.
  • Robinson G., Dechant K. (1997), Building a Business Case for Diversity, “The Academy of Management Perspectives”, vol. 11, no 3, https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.1997.9709231661.
  • Rothstein H. R., McDaniel M. A., Borenstein M. (2002), Meta-analysis. A Review of Quantitative Cumulation Methods (in:) Measuring and Analyzing Behaviors in Organizations, eds F. Drasgow, N. Schmitt, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
  • Sabharwal M. (2014), Is Diversity Management Sufficient? Organizational Inclusion to Further Performance, “Public Personnel Management”, vol. 43, no 2, https://doi.org/10.1177/0091026014522202.
  • Schneid M., Isidor R., Steinmetz H., Kabst R. (2016), Age Diversity and Team Outcomes: A Quantitative Review, “Journal of Managerial Psychology”, vol. 31, no 1, https://doi.org/10.1108/jmp-07-2012-0228.
  • Shen J., Chanda A., D’Netto B., Monga M. (2009), Managing Diversity through Human Resource: An International Perspective and Conceptual Framework, “The International Journal of Human Resource Management”, vol. 20, no 2, https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190802670516.
  • Shen J., D’Netto B., Tang J. (2010), Effects of Human Resource Diversity Management on Organizational Citizen Behaviour in the Chinese Context, “The International Journal of Human Resource Management”, vol. 21, no 12, https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2010.509622.
  • Shen J., Tang N., D’Netto B. (2014), A Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of HR Diversity Management on Employee Knowledge Sharing: The Case of Chinese Employees, “The International Journal of Human Resource Management”, vol. 25, no 12, https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013.859163.
  • Singh B., Winkel D. E., Selvarjan T. T. (2013), Managing Diversity at Work: Does Psychological Safety Hold the Key to Racial Differences in Employee Performance?, “Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology”, vol. 86, https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12015.
  • Sonnentag S., Volmer J., Spychala A. (2008), Job Performance (in:) The Sage Handbook of Organizational Behavior. Volume 1: Micro Approaches, eds J. Barling, C. L. Cooper, Sage, Los Angeles.
  • Stahl G. K., Maznevski M. L., Voigt A., Jonsen K. (2010), Unraveling the Effects of Cultural Diversity in Teams: A Meta-analysis of Research on Multicultural Work Groups, “Journal of International Business Studies”, vol. 41, no 4, https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2009.85.
  • Thomas R. R. (1990), From Affirmative Action to Affirming Diversity, “Harvard Business Review”, vol. 68, no 2.
  • Triana M. D. C., García M. F. (2009), Valuing Diversity: A Group-value Approach to Understanding the Importance on Organizational Efforts to Support Diversity, “Journal of Organizational Behavior”, vol. 30, no 7, https://doi.org/10.1002/job.598.
  • Triana M. D. C., García M. F., Colella A. (2010), Managing Diversity: How Organizational Efforts to Support Diversity Moderate the Effects of Perceived Racial Discrimination on Affective Commitment, “Personnel Psychology”, vol. 63, no 4, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01189.x.
  • van Dijk H., van Engen M. L., van Knippenberg D. (2012), Defying Conventional Wisdom: A Meta-analytical Examination of the Differences between Demographic and Job-related Diversity Relationships with Performance, “Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes”, vol. 119, no 1, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2012.06.003.
  • Webber S. S., Donahue L. M. (2001), Impact of Highly and Less Job-related Diversity on Work Group Cohesion and Performance: A Meta-analysis, “Journal of Management”, vol. 27, no 2, https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630102700202.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-92f45da4-d3c4-4ceb-bbdb-01a037d083e3
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.