The rapidity of the damage incurred to stone monuments depends on the resistance of the material and the surrounding environmental conditions. Polish professional literature and conservation practice lack a complex approach to stone material as regards its durability. Global tendencies aim at an all-sided familiarity with the features of the material and the phenomena occurring therein in the course of exploitation. The reaction of the stone material in a historical object depends predominantly on its structure and resultant physical and mechanical properties. The structure and mineral composition of the material decide when and how it should be applied. From the practical point of view, predictions concerning the reaction of material in the course of time is ascribed considerable meaning. The author presents the structure and mineral composition of examples of domestic sandstones under the impact of air pollution.