PL EN


2017 | 20 | 9-34
Article title

The “living together” argument in the European Court of Human Rights case-law

Authors
Content
Title variants
PL
Argument odwołujący się do życia razem (living together) w orzecznictwie Europejskiego Trybunału Praw Człowieka
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
This article analyses the three cases where the argument of “living together” was engaged by the ECtHR and accepted as a legal justification for the prohibition of the full-face veils (burqa and niqab): SAS v. France (2014), Belcacemi and Oussar v. Belgium (2017), and Dakir v. Belgium (2017). It analyses the proposed concept of “living together” itself, explaining its content and its development in the French and Belgian contexts. The paper argues that there is a lack of a robust legal analysis sufficient to legitimize this new argument. Finally, it makes the case for more fact-oriented decisions and the need for the Court to engage in evaluating all the knowledge it obtains, including empirical material brought by the third parties’ interventions. This could be beneficial for two reasons: facilitating the application of the proportionality test and protecting the Court itself from dangerous challenges to its authority.
PL
Artykuł analizuje trzy sprawy, w których Europejski Trybunał Praw Człowieka użył argumentu odwołującego się do życia razem (living together), akceptując go jako uzasadnienie dla zakazu zasłaniania twarzy (burqa i niqab): SAS v. France (2014), Belcacemi and Oussar v. Belgium (2017) oraz Dakir v. Belgium (2017). Analizie poddane jest samo pojęcie „życia razem” w celu wyjaśnienia jego znaczenia i rozwoju we francuskim i belgijskim kontekście. Zdaniem Autorki brakuje pogłębionych analiz prawnych, które wystarczająco uzasadniałyby stosowanie tego nowego argumentu. Artykuł zamyka postulat bardziej skrupulatnego uwzględniania okoliczności faktycznych przy podejmowaniu decyzji. Podkreśla się przy tym, że Trybunał powinien w pełniejszym zakresie brać pod uwagę całokształt posiadanych informacji, włączając w to materiał empiryczny dostarczany przez podmioty interweniujące na zasadzie strony trzeciej. Byłoby to korzystne z dwóch powodów: ułatwiałoby zastosowanie testu proporcjonalności oraz chroniłoby Trybunał przed niebezpiecznym podważaniem jego autorytetu.
Contributors
author
  • Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 3246, 30123 Venezia (Italy), tania.pagotto@gmail.com
  • Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Hermann- Föge-Weg 11, 37073 Göttingen (Germany)
References
  • Aroney, Nicholas, and Rex Ahdar. Shari’a in the West. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Benvenisti, Eyal. “Margin of Appreciation, Consensus, and Universal Standards.” International Law and Politics 31, no. 4 (1998): 843-54.
  • Bergo, Bettina. “Emmanuel Levinas.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta, 2015; http://plato.stanford.edu.
  • Berry, Stephanie. “SAS v. France: Does Anything Remain of the Right to Manifest Religion?” EJIL: Talk!, 2 July 2014, http://www.ejiltalk.org.
  • Bickley, Paul. The Problem of Proselytism (Theos, 2015), http://www.theosthinktank.co.uk.
  • Bratza, Nicolas, “The «Precious Asset»: Freedom of Religion Under the European Convention on Human Rights.” Ecclesiastical Law Journal 14, no. 2 (2012): 256-71.
  • Brems, Eva. “Face Veil Bans in the European Court of Human Rights: The Importance of Empirical Findings,” Journal of Law and Policy 22 (2013):517-551.
  • Brems, Eva, ed. The Experiences of Face Veil Wearers in Europe and the Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
  • Brems, Eva, et al. “Head-Covering Bans in Belgian Courtrooms and Beyond: Headscarf Persecution and the Complicity of Supranational Courts.” Human Rights Quarterly 39, no. 4 (2017): 882-909.
  • Brems, Eva, Jogchum Vrielink, and Saïla Ouald Chaib. “Uncovering French and Belgian Face Covering Bans.” Journal of Law, Religion and State 2, no. 1 (2013): 69-99.
  • Brems, Eva, Saila Ouald-Chaib, and Jogchum Vrielink, “The Belgian «Burqa Ban»: Legal Aspects of Local and General Prohibitions on Covering and Concealing One’s Face in Belgium.” In The Burqa Affair across Europe: Between Public and Private Space, edited by Alessandro Ferrari and Sabrina Pastorelli. Farnham, Surrey: Routledge, 2016.
  • Calo, Zachary R. “Islamic Headscarves, Religious Pluralism, and Secular Human Rights,” International Consortium for Law and Religion Studies Conference, Santiago, Chile, September 2011 (SSRN, 28 August 2011): 2, http://ssrn.com.
  • Cranmer, Frank. “Strasbourg Upholds Belgian Niqab Ban: Belcacemi and Dakir.” Law & Religion UK, http://www.lawandreligionuk.com.
  • Delgrange, Xavier. “La loi «anti-burqa» comme symptôme.” Politique – Revue de débats, no. 74 (2012), 42-50.
  • De Schutter, Olivier, and Françoise Tulkens. “The European Court of Human Rights as a Pragmatic Institution.” In Conflicts Between FundamentalRights, edited by Eva Brems, 169-216. Antwerp-Oxford-Portland: Intersentia, 2008.
  • Doe, Norman. Law and Religion in Europe: A Comparative Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Dumont, Hugues, and Xavier Delgrange. “Le Principe de Pluralisme Face à la Question du Voile Islamique en Belgique.” Droit et société, no. 68 (2008): 75-108.
  • Edge, Peter W. Legal Responses to Religious Difference. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2002.
  • Edmunds, June. “The Limits of Post-National Citizenship: European Muslims, Human Rights and the Hijab.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 35, no. 7 (July 2012): 1181-1199.
  • Erlings, Esther. “The Government Did Not Refer to It’: SAS v. France and Ordre Public at the European Court of Human Rights.” Melbourne Journal of International Law 16 (2015): 587-608.
  • Evans, Carolyn M. Freedom of Religion Under the European Convention on Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • Evans, Carolyn. “The «Islamic Scarf» in the European Court of Human Rights.” Melbourne Journal of International Law 4, no. 7 (2006): 52-73.
  • Ferrari, Silvio. “Who Needs Freedom of Religion?” In The Confluence of Law and Religion: Interdisciplinary Reflections on the Work of Norman Doe, edited by Frank Cranmer, Mark Hill, Celia Kenny, and Russell Sandberg, 117-90. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.
  • Fokas, Effie. “Directions in Religious Pluralism in Europe: Mobilizations in the Shadow of European Court of Human Rights Religious Freedom Jurisprudence.” Oxford Journal of Law and Religion, no. 4 (2015): 54-74.
  • Greer, Steven. The Margin of Appreciation: Interpretation and Discretion under the European Convention on Human Rights. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 2000.
  • Gunn, T. Jeremy. “Adjudicating Rights of Conscience Under the European Convention on Human Rights.” In Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Legal Perspectives, edited by John Witte Jr and Johan D. van der Vyver, vol. 2, 305-30. The Hague: Kluwer Law Inernational, 1996.
  • Haarscher, Guy. “Secularism, the Veil and Reasonable Interlocutors: Why France Is Not That Wrong.” Penn State International Law Review 28, no. 3 (2010-2009): 367-82.
  • Hill, Mark, and Katherine Barnes. “Limitations on Freedom of Religion and Belief in the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights in the Quarter Century since Its Judgment in Kokkinakis v. Greece.” Religion & Human Rights 12, no. 2-3 (7 October 2017): 174-97.
  • Hunter-Henin, Myriam. “Why the French Don’t Like the Burqa: Laïcité, National Identity and Religious Freedom.” International & Comparative Law Quarterly 61, no. 03 (July 2012): 613-639.
  • Janneke, Gerards. “Procedural Review by the ECtHR: A Typology.” In Procedural Review in European Fundamental Rights Cases, edited by Eva Brems and Gerards Janneke. Cambridg: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
  • Knights, Samantha. Freedom of Religion, Minorities, and the Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Lange, Yasha. Living Together. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 2009.
  • Languille, Constantin. La Possibilité Du Cosmopolitisme. Burqa, Droits de l’homme et Vivre-Ensemble. Paris: Gallimard, 2015.
  • Letsas, George. “Two Concepts of the Margin of Appreciation.” Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 26, no. 4 (21 December 2006): 705-32.
  • Marshall, Jill. “S.A.S. v. France: Burqa Bans and the Control or Empowerment of Identities.” Human Rights Law Review 15, no. 2 (6 January 2015): 377-89.
  • Millet, François-Xavier. “When the European Court of Human Rights Encounters the Face.” European Constitutional Law Review 11, no. 02 (2015): 408-424.
  • Movsesian, Mark. “European Human Rights Court to France: Do Whatever You Want.” CENTER FOR LAW AND RELIGION FORUM, 3 July 2014, https://clrforum.org.
  • Murdoch, Jim. Protecting the Right to Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion under the European Convention on Human Rights. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 2012.
  • Petersen, Niels. “Avoiding the Common-Wisdom Fallacy: The Role of Social Sciences in Constitutional Adjudication.” International Journal of Constitutional Law 11, no. 2 (2013): 294-318.
  • Rivers, Julian. “Proportionality and Variable Intensity of Review.” The Cambridge Law Journal 65, no. 1 (March 2006): 174-207.
  • Sanader, Teresa. “Religious Symbols and Garments in Public Places – A Theory for the Understanding of S.A.S. v. France,” Vienna Journal on International Constitutional Law / ICL Journal 9 (2015): 186-212.
  • Shachar, Ayelet. “Freedom of the Dress. Religion and Women’s Rights in Secular States.” Harvard International Law Review 32, no. 2 (2010), 53-59.
  • Spielmann, Dean. “Allowing the Right Margin: The European Court of Human Rights and the National Margin of Appreciation Doctrine: Waiver or Subsidiarity of European Review?” 2013, http://www.echr.coe.int.
  • Steinbach, Armin. “Burqas and Bans: The Wearing of Religious Symbols under the European Convention of Human Rights.” Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law 4 (2015): 29-52.
  • Stoop, Ineke, and Eric Harrison. “Classification of Surveys.” In Handbook of Survey Methodology for the Social Sciences, edited by Lior Gideon, 7-21. New York: Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
  • Trevor, Allan R.S. “Democracy, Legality, and Proportionality.” In Proportionality and the Rule of Law, edited by Grant Huscroft, Bradley W. Miller and Gregoire Webber. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
  • Tsevas, Christos. “Human Rights and Religions: «Living Together» or Dying Apart? A Critical Assessment of the Dissenting Opinion in S.A.S. v. France and the Notion of «Living Together».” Religion, State and Society 45, no. 3-4 (2 October 2017): 203-15.
  • Vakulenko, Anastasia. Islamic Veiling in Legal Discourse. New York: Routledge, 2012.
  • Van Ooijen, Hana. Religious Symbols in Public Functions: Unveiling State Neutrality. School of Human Rights Research Series. Cambridge: Intersentia, 2012.
  • Vauche, Stéphanie Hennette. “Is French laïcité Still Liberal? The Republican Project under Pressure (2004–15).” Human Rights Law Review, 17 no. 2 (2017): 285-312.
  • Vickers, Lucy. “Achbita and Bougnaoui: One Step Forward and Two Steps Back for Religious Diversity in the Workplace.” European Labour Law Journal 8, no. 3 (2017): 232-57.
  • Vickers, Lucy. “Conform or Be Confined: S.A.S. v. France,” OxHRH Blog, 2014, www.ohrh.law.ox.ac.uk.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-94042bdc-17af-4e8d-b859-187973b9787d
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.