In the first fragment of the work, the problem of drug addiction was discussed. The most important definitions were formulated, essential for the understanding of many issues discussed later and also the causes and effects of people’s drug abuse, as well as the first attempts to fight this phenomenon. Further on, the question of availability of narcotic drugs in Polish pharmacies in the 20th century was presented. A number of statutory regulations were cited that concerned purchase, storage or dispensation of narcotic drugs, as well as changes in classification of those substances. Then the history, effects and the use of poppy and opium preserves were described, and also the use of methadone and buprenorphine in the replacement therapy for opium drug addicts. The next part of the work was devoted to cannabinoids of plant origin. The history of application of those substances was introduced, as well as their influence on human organism, the scope of use in therapy and difficulties in coping with addiction to marijuana and hashish. The last part deals with the question of offence connected with purchasing and providing of other narcotic drugs. The issues of narcotic crimes, penal regulations and the problem of drug addicts’ therapy were presented. A short summary of the most important conclusions drawn from the conducted research finishes the work.