Child care benefit (500+) is a new cash instrument of family policy introduced in Poland in 2016. There were a lot of discussions on many respects of the new benefit. One of them is expected impact on child, family and total poverty. In the first part I described goals of family policy and the 500+ in comparison to family benefits. Second part contains critical examination of official justification of 500+ in the light of a theory of poverty reduction by cash benefits. In the main part I presented shortly microsimulation models and results of three of them (Ministry of Finance, World Bank and European Commission). It is likely that 500+ impact on overall poverty and child and family poverty in financial dimension will be impressive. In the result the change of the structure of poverty risk in Poland can be substantial.