The Southern Mediterranean has always been a problematic region for the international community. After many years of instability in the Middle East and an ongoing impasse in relations between Israel and Palestinians, there came the question of the “Arab Spring” which emerged in 2011. The paper examines peacekeeping (operations) in the Middle East and North Africa. The main goal is to analyze the complexity of the threats and challenges emerging from the Mediterranean region, as well as the institutional framework for peacekeeping operations, with a focus on EU involvement in the Mediterranean. The article attempts to answer the question of whether a regional organization such as the EU has effective instruments to improve security in its southern neighbourhood.