ZAMEK CZORSZTYN ZABYTKOWA RUINA W PARKU NARODOWYM
CZORSZTYN CASTLE HISTORICAL RUIN IN A NATIONAL PARK
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Researchers have acknowledged that the oldest fortress on the site of the present-day castle was built during the third quarter of the thirteenth century and became known as “Wronin”. The castle named “Czorsztyn”, expanded and redesigned upon numerous occasions starting with the fourteenth century, played the part of a custom house, the seat of the office of a starosta not associated with the castletown, and a royal residence located next to an important route to Hungary. In 1629-1643 starosta Jan Baranowski, the count of Jastrzębiec, basically redesigned the object. The downfall of the castle began with its devastation in 1734-1735, and final collapse was caused by a fire which broke out in 1790. From that time on, the castle remained a ruin. This was the state in which it was discovered by nineteenth-century tourists and artists, becoming part of the Polish Romantic tradition. Attempts at preserving the ruins were made already during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century by the owners of the castle, members of the Drohojowski family. A natural reserve was created in 1921 after rare (endemic) species of plants were found amidst the ruins. During the 1950s limited preservation work was conducted after the monument was taken over by the State Treasury. Changes in the surrounding environment caused by the construction of an artificial water reservoir made it necessary to embark upon wider conservation undertakings, realised since 1992 by the present-day administrator of the monument, i. e. the Pieniński National Park, according to projects by Piotr M. Stępień, an architect, and Dr. Stanisław Karczmarczyk, an engineer. The basic conservation premise accepted by all the variants and stages of the project is to preserve the characteristic silhouette of the ruins of Czorsztyn Castle in view of its above mentioned role played in Romantic tradition and connections with the protected landscape of the Pieniny Mts. The process of securing relics uncovered in the course of research and opening the ruins to visitors calls for the introduction of roofs, stairs and gangplanks within the object. From the viewpoint of construction, the basic method of protection proved to be the recreation of selected elements of the historical ceilings, arches, etc., supplemented by means of injections and roof bolting in the case of threatened fragments of the walls. The author lists the reasons and consequences of resorting to this particular method. Heretofore efforts have managed to maintain the accepted conservation premises. The correctness of the selected conservation trend is confirmed by the large numbers of visitors and their approval for the object. By using the example of Czorsztyn, the author analysed the conservation of historical ruins, claiming that the threats posed to historical ruins include the doctrine of non-intervention and unhampered fantasy. As a rule, a radically conceived principle of nonintervention signifies consent to the annihilation of the historical ruin in the near future. A similar threat is posed by reconstruction which enters into the domain of fantasy, unsupported by iconography or the outcome of architectural research. By restoring the utilitarian and technical value of the given object, such reconstruction destroys its historical merits, sometimes irreversibly. A wide field of professional solutions located between those two radical attitudes, makes it possible to preserve an object without losing any of its historical qualities.
- mgr inż. arch., absolwent Wydziału Architektury Politechniki Krakowskiej, odbył studia podyplomowe w ICCROM (Rzym). Pracę zawodową w zakresie konserwacji zabytków architektury rozpoczął w 1976 r. w Kierownictwie Odnowienia Zamku Królewskiego na Wawelu, następnie pracował w PKZ-Wawel i PKZ-Kraków, zajmując się m.in. konserwacją detalu architektonicznego. Obecnie pełni funkcję głównego specjalisty ds. konserwacji architektury w Zamku Królewskim na Wawelu – Państwowych Zbiorach Sztuki w Krakowie. Zawodowo zajmuje się również architekturą współczesną (m.in. dom Tadeusza Kantora w Hucisku k. Krakowa, klasztor dominikanek przy ul. Kasztanowej w Krakowie).
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