The fundamental issue with which this article deals is whether the authentic alternatives to development policy can be considered and implemented in Africa. And if so, on what political and social ground these alternatives can be based, and by what means they can best carried out. This article focuses, in particular, on the degree to which African countries in the wake of transitions from settler neocolonialism contain the sort of cultural, social and political impulses that can support a new thinking about development and the means thereto. This rethinking of the political economy of development is about the possibility of pursuing alternatives to development strategies, but not about providing a new blueprint for what that future should look like. In this article the author presented two concepts for the development of African countries, by Paul Romer and Philippe Engelhard. The article also presents the cur- rent economic situation of the African continent.