The concept of professional self-determination of high school students is analyzed in the article. And the main factors of this process in the general educational institution are characterized here. Solving the problem of self-determination of younger generation in their profession is the one of the most important social-pedagogical tasks of modern society. The development of technology and informative spheres of society demand the clear separating of specialists between branches of the economy and the awareness of youth their place and role of the professional contribution in the development of people. The further self-realization, creative and innovative activities, which are directed on the improvement of existing society and the state, depend on the conscious choice of professional way. Despite some positive results the professional guidance doesn’t achieve its main goal in modern conditions – formation the self-determination of students, which corresponds to individual needs of every personality and staffing needs of society. The main methods of the research in this article are the theoretical analysis of philosophical and psychological and pedagogical literature of studied problem, which help to define the concept of the professional self-determination and the general factors of incipience of this phenomenon in the educational process of general educational institution. The professional self-determination is the long term process of harmonization of personal and social needs during all life. Besides, the concept of the professional self-determination is closely related with concept of the professional socialization, which means the certain level of social professional identity. It is meant the identification of oneself as the representative of the certain profession. The main contradiction in the process of the professional self-determination is that this process is bilateral and consist the objective and subjective dimension. The pedagogical activity, which is aimed at shaping of the professional self-determination of high school students, is defined as one of the most important area of work. There is also defined the main groups of factors of this process: macrofactors, middlefactors and microfactors. The main prospective ways of further investigation are the designing of methods of forming of skills of self-determination of students in the choice of the profession in the conditions of modern general educational institution.