Since the beginning of the 21st century, the European Union has been undergoing a wave of broad-based crises. Th e Eurozone crisis, the eff ects of which are still being felt by the EU economy and the integration process as a whole, the subsequent so-called migration crisis with its impact on the integration dynamic, the British referendum on Brexit, and the pandemic crisis, which may change the integration slowdown. Does this development correspond to the concept of chaos or is it the arrival of a black swan? What security challenges have these crises brought? Macroeconomic vulnerability, geo-economic vulnerability, polarisation of the EU Member States, a decline in the Union unity and a return to national interests. But also, a rethinking of self-suffi ciency in strategic zones, questions of strategic autonomy in critical infrastructure. The pursuit of strategic autonomy is likely to require a shift towards majority voting within the EU. The crises of recent years have led to an increase in the EU’s geopolitical emphasis, but also to a reduction in democracy and transparency in democratic systems.