The article is devoted to the problem of monitoring of the quality of students’ professional training at Ukrainian universities. Monitoring is regarded as an instrument of defining regularities, tendencies, variables and their dynamics for designing measures aimed at improving the quality of higher professional education. The research is based on the methods of comparative analyses such as comparison and ranging. The latest state documents concerning education: the Laws of Ukraine “On Higher Education” (2014) and “On Education” (2016) are taken into consideration by the author. Gaps in students’ professional training are defined: most students are not able to work in a team; they cannot take decisions and bare responsibilities for their implementation. Students are overloaded with theoretical material and lack of practical skills of using their knowledge in practice. That is because the academic process at most Ukrainian universities is based on knowledge-oriented approach while in European universities the competence approach to teaching prevails. Reproductive but not creative thinking is prospering at our universities: students reproduce the materials from the textbooks which are often obsolete and do not reflect the latest research data. Students seldom participate in scientific-research activity or are engaged in special students scientific societies. As a result our university graduates are passive and very rare create their own intellectual products. Very often they cannot get used to quickly changeable reality because they were taught to operate by only standard set of knowledge and skills. All these drawbacks prevent our students from successful integration to the European educational community. The basic ways of monitoring of students’ professional competence are cleared out. They are connected with improving of the of informative and analytical level of accompaniment of the university activity, creating the mechanism of well-timed exposure of the main tendencies and changes concerning improving of the quality of professional training at Ukrainian universities. Monitoring of the quality of higher professional education can be regarded as a means of management of the university activity in general and as an instrument for planning further steps on the way of improving our higher educational system.